Adult umbilical cord blood transplantation: a comprehensive review

Department of Hematology, Gasthuisberg University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Bone Marrow Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.47). 07/2006; 38(2):83-93. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1705403
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent registry studies have established umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation as a safe and feasible alternative to bone marrow transplantation in adults when no sibling donor is available. There is, however, no gold standard to guide optimal treatment choices. We review here factors leading to the choice of the 'best available donor' and 'best available unit' in the case of UCB. For instance, it is clear that higher cell dose may partially overcome the negative impact of certain histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) disparities in UCB transplantation, leading us to choose the more closely HLA-matched unit with a cell dose >2.5 x 10(7)/kg. New approaches in adult UCB transplantation are systematically covered, with a quantitative appreciation of the evidence available to date. Reduced intensity conditioning, for example, broadens the range of potential recipients by reducing transplant-related mortality, but suffers from unproven risks and benefits long term. Potential advantages of multiple units over single unit transplants are discussed, with a particular emphasis on confounding factors that impact interpretation. The limited clinical results of ex vivo UCB expansion, the possible benefits of co-infusion of haploidentical cells and controversial issues (e.g. killer immunoglobulin-like receptor matching and alternative graft sources) are also addressed with a debate on the future of UCB transplantation.

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    01/2014; 04(06). DOI:10.4172/2157-7633.1000214
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    ABSTRACT: More than 40% of the body mass is represented by muscle tissue, which possesses the innate ability to regenerate after damage through the activation of muscle-specific stem cells, namely satellite cells. Muscle diseases, in particular chronic degenerative states of skeletal muscle such as dystrophies, lead to a perturbation of the regenerative process, which causes the premature exhaustion of satellite cell reservoir due to continuous cycles of degeneration/regeneration. Nowadays, the research is focused on different therapeutic approaches, ranging from gene and cell to pharmacological therapy, but still there is no definitive cure in particular for genetic muscle disease. Keeping this in mind, in this article, we will give special consideration to muscle diseases and the use of fetal derived stem cells as a new approach for therapy. Cells of fetal origin, from cord blood to placenta and amniotic fluid, can be easily obtained without ethical concern, expanded and differentiated in culture, and possess immune-modulatory properties. The in vivo approach in animal models can be helpful to study the mechanism underneath the operating principle of the stem cell reservoir, namely the niche, which holds great potential to understand the onset of muscle pathologies.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 08/2014; 6:222. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00222 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are searching for novel stem cell based therapeutic strategies that will allow for efficient treatment or even potential replacement of damaged organs. The purpose of this work was to study the behavior of human umbilical cord vein cells (UCVs) through osteoblastic differentiation. Material and Methods: Cells were isolated, expanded and cultivated in osteogenic medium. After 7, 14 and 21 days of culture, cell morphology, proliferation, viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were evaluated. Immunolocalization of ALP was performed after 1, 7 and 14 days of culture and cells were analyzed in a fluorescence microscope. Statistical test utilized was Mann-Whitney (p < 0.05). Results: The results showed that osteogenic medium induced morphological changes in UCVs. Besides, it permitted cell viability and proliferation, as well as an increase in alkaline phosphatase expression and activity. Conclusion: It is concluded that these cells can differentiate into osteoblastic-like cells, contributing to applications for cell therapy and tissue engineering.

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