Adult umbilical cord blood transplantation: a comprehensive review.

Department of Hematology, Gasthuisberg University Hospital Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
Bone Marrow Transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.54). 07/2006; 38(2):83-93. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bmt.1705403
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recent registry studies have established umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation as a safe and feasible alternative to bone marrow transplantation in adults when no sibling donor is available. There is, however, no gold standard to guide optimal treatment choices. We review here factors leading to the choice of the 'best available donor' and 'best available unit' in the case of UCB. For instance, it is clear that higher cell dose may partially overcome the negative impact of certain histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) disparities in UCB transplantation, leading us to choose the more closely HLA-matched unit with a cell dose >2.5 x 10(7)/kg. New approaches in adult UCB transplantation are systematically covered, with a quantitative appreciation of the evidence available to date. Reduced intensity conditioning, for example, broadens the range of potential recipients by reducing transplant-related mortality, but suffers from unproven risks and benefits long term. Potential advantages of multiple units over single unit transplants are discussed, with a particular emphasis on confounding factors that impact interpretation. The limited clinical results of ex vivo UCB expansion, the possible benefits of co-infusion of haploidentical cells and controversial issues (e.g. killer immunoglobulin-like receptor matching and alternative graft sources) are also addressed with a debate on the future of UCB transplantation.

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    ABSTRACT: The influence of TNF-α and Fas-ligand (FasL) on viability and function was evaluated in fresh- and expanded-umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells. CD34(+) progenitors and T cells display outstanding survival, whereas ~30% and >50% B lymphocytes and myeloid cells undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 24 and 48 h, respectively. Although the impact of exposure to toxic doses of FasL and TNF-α was undetectable in measurements of apoptosis; removal of dead cells after 2 days of incubation with the ligands revealed a twofold increase in frequency of colony-forming cells (CFU). The sensitivity of progenitors to apoptosis was also unaffected by Fas cross-linking following TNF-induced upregulation of the receptor, increasing CFU frequency without impairing SCID repopulating cell (SRC) activity. Most significant enrichment in CD34(+) progenitors and corresponding increase in CFU frequency were observed when FasL was applied during the final week of ex vivo expansion under the influence of nicotinamide, without impairing SRC activity. These data emphasize differential sensitivities of UCB progenitors and lineage-positive cells to apoptotic signaling mediated by the Fas and TNF receptors, which might be useful in improving the efficiency of ex vivo expansion and improving UCB cell engraftment.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 28 April 2014; doi:10.1038/bmt.2014.79.
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