Mutation of the atrophin2 gene in the zebrafish disrupts signaling by fibroblast growth factor during development of the inner ear.
ABSTRACT The development of the vertebrate inner ear depends on the precise expression of fibroblast growth factors. In a mutagenesis screen for zebrafish with abnormalities of inner-ear development and behavior, we isolated a mutant line, ru622, whose phenotypic characteristics resembled those of null mutants for the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8): an inconsistent startle response, circular swimming, fused otoliths, and abnormal semicircular canals. Positional cloning disclosed that the mutant gene encodes the transcriptional corepressor Atrophin2. Both the Fgf8 protein and zebrafish "similar expression to fgf genes" protein (Sef), an antagonist of fibroblast growth factors induced by Fgf8 itself, were found to be overexpressed in ru622 mutants. We therefore hypothesized that an excess of Sef eliminates Fgf8 signals and produces an fgf8 null phenotype in ru622 mutants. In support of this idea, we could rescue larvae whose atrophin2 expression had been diminished with morpholinos by reducing the expression of Sef as well. We propose that Atrophin2 plays a role in the feedback regulation of Fgf8 signaling. When mutation of the atrophin2 gene results in the overexpression of both Fgf8 and Sef, the excessive Sef inhibits Fgf8 signaling. The resultant imbalance of Fgf8 and Sef signals then underlies the abnormal aural development observed in ru622.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Dylan K Chan, Mar 30, 2014
- SourceAvailable from: Matthias Hammerschmidt[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The transcriptional regulator RERE/Atrophin-2 (RERE) is required for the normal patterning of the early vertebrate embryo, including the central nervous system, pharyngeal arches, and limbs. Consistent with a role as a transcriptional corepressor, RERE binds histone deacetylase 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2), and orphan nuclear receptors such as Tlx. Here, we identify the zebrafish babyface (bab) as a mutant in rerea and show that it interacts genetically with fibroblast growth factor 8 (fgf8). We suggest that this finding is largely due to its interactions with HDAC, because genetic or pharmacological disruptions of HDAC phenocopy many features of the bab mutant. Furthermore, removing the functions of either REREa or HDAC synergizes with loss of Fgf8 function to disrupt posterior mesoderm formation during somitogenesis, midbrain-hindbrain boundary maintenance, and pharyngeal cartilage development. Together, these results reveal novel in vivo roles for REREa in HDAC-mediated regulation of Fgf signaling. We present a model for RERE-dependent patterning in which tissue-specific transcriptional repression, by means of an REREa-HDAC complex, modulates growth factor signaling during embryogenesis.Developmental Dynamics 10/2007; 236(7):1891-904. DOI:10.1002/dvdy.21196 · 2.67 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. Developmental Dynamics, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Developmental Dynamics 10/2014; 243(10). DOI:10.1002/dvdy.24167 · 2.67 Impact Factor