Single-Gene Mutations and Increased Left Ventricular Wall Thickness in the Community The Framingham Heart Study
ABSTRACT Mutations in sarcomere protein, PRKAG2, LAMP2, alpha-galactosidase A (GLA), and several mitochondrial genes can cause rare familial cardiomyopathies, but their contribution to increased left ventricular wall thickness (LVWT) in the community is unknown.
We studied 1862 unrelated participants (52% women; age, 59+/-9 years) from the community-based Framingham Heart Study who had echocardiograms and provided DNA samples but did not have severe hypertension, aortic prosthesis, or significant aortic stenosis. Eight sarcomere protein genes, 3 storage cardiomyopathy-causing genes, and 27 mitochondrial genes were sequenced in unrelated individuals with increased LVWT (maximum LVWT >13 mm). Fifty eligible participants (9 women) had unexplained increased LVWT. We detected 8 mutations in 9 individuals (2 women); 7 mutations in 5 sarcomere protein genes (MYH7, MYBPC3, TNNT2, TNNI3, MYL3), and 1 GLA mutation. In individuals with increased LVWT, participants with sarcomere protein and storage mutations were clinically indistinguishable from those without mutations.
In a community-based cohort, about 3% of eligible participants had increased LVWT, of whom 18% had sarcomere protein or lipid storage gene mutations. Increased LVWT in the community is a very heterogeneous condition, which sometimes may arise from single-gene variants in one of a number of genes.
- SourceAvailable from: Konstantinos Kostulas
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- "Yasuda et al. found the D313Y alteration in 0.45% of subjects in a normal Caucasian population.43 However, D313Y has been found as the single genetic alteration in Fabry disease patients with highly reduced enzymatic activity and end-stage renal disease,42 in those with stroke,58 and in Fabry disease presenting with cardiovascular symptoms.59 We do not have information about any possible associated diseases in our healthy controls. "
ABSTRACT: The etiology of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) often remains unclear. Since SFN may be the only symptom of late-onset Fabry disease, it may be underdiagnosed in patients with idiopathic polyneuropathy. We aimed to uncover the etiological causes of seemingly idiopathic SFN by applying a focused investigatory procedure, to describe the clinical phenotype of true idiopathic SFN, and to elucidate the possible prevalence of late-onset Fabry disease in these patients. Forty-seven adults younger than 60 years with seemingly idiopathic pure or predominantly small fiber sensory neuropathy underwent a standardized focused etiological and clinical investigation. The patients deemed to have true idiopathic SFN underwent genetic analysis of the alpha-galactosidase A gene (GLA) that encodes the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (Fabry disease). The following etiologies were identified in 12 patients: impaired glucose tolerance (58.3%), diabetes mellitus (16.6%), alcohol abuse (8.3%), mitochondrial disease (8.3%), and hereditary neuropathy (8.3%). Genetic alterations of unknown clinical significance in GLA were detected in 6 of the 29 patients with true idiopathic SFN, but this rate did not differ significantly from that in healthy controls (n=203). None of the patients with genetic alterations in GLA had significant biochemical abnormalities simultaneously in blood, urine, and skin tissue. A focused investigation may aid in uncovering further etiological factors in patients with seemingly idiopathic SFN, such as impaired glucose tolerance. However, idiopathic SFN in young to middle-aged Swedish patients does not seem to be due to late-onset Fabry disease.Journal of Clinical Neurology 04/2014; 10(2):108-18. DOI:10.3988/jcn.2014.10.2.108 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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- "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common autosomal dominant heart disease, affecting at least 1 in 500 persons worldwide [Maron et al., 1995; Morita et al., 2006]. It is characterized by ventricular hypertrophy and can give rise to symptoms at any age. "
ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common hereditary heart disease associated with sudden cardiac death. Predictive genetic counseling and testing are performed using adapted Huntington guidelines, that is, psychosocial care and time for reflection are not obligatory and the test result can be disclosed by telephone or mail. Proven mutation carriers detected by predictive DNA testing are advised to undergo regular cardiac follow-up according to international guidelines. We evaluated the opinion of 143 predictively tested HCM mutation carriers on received cardiogenetic care using questionnaires (response rate 86%). Predictive genetic counseling and DNA testing were evaluated on four domains: information provision, satisfaction with counseling, social pressure in DNA testing and regret of DNA testing. Opinions on cardiac follow-up were assessed pertaining to communication, nervous anticipation, reassurance, and general disadvantages. Genetic counseling was valued positively and only four carriers would rather not have known that they were a mutation carrier. A majority received their DNA test result by mail or telephone, and almost all were satisfied. Only 76% of carriers received regular cardiac follow-up. Those who did, had a positive attitude regarding the cardiac visits. General disadvantages of the visits were valued as low, especially by older carriers, men and carriers with manifest HCM. We conclude that our adapted Huntington guidelines are well accepted and that cardiogenetic care is generally appreciated by predictively tested HCM mutation carriers. To better understand the cause of the substantial portion of mutation carriers not receiving regular cardiac follow-up, although recommended in international guidelines, further research is needed.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 07/2009; 149A(7):1444-51. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.32915 · 2.16 Impact Factor
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- "Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common autosomal dominant cardiac disease affecting at least 1 in 500 persons worldwide [Maron et al., 1995; Zou et al., 2004; Morita et al., 2006], characterized by hypertrophy of the ventricular myocardial wall with variable age at onset. Symptomatic patients may show dyspnea, exertional angina, palpitations and (pre)syncope and sudden cardiac death (SCD) at a young age [Maron, 2002]. "
ABSTRACT: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common hereditary heart disease associated with heart failure and sudden death. Quality of life and psychological distress were found to be impaired in HCM patients but have never been assessed in mutation carriers, with or without manifest HCM. We aimed to assess quality of life and psychological distress, using standardized questionnaires, and to identify sociodemographic, clinical, risk and illness perception related predictors thereof in 228 HCM mutation carriers. HCM carriers' overall quality of life and distress scores did not differ from the Dutch population. Quality of life and distress were worst in carriers with manifest HCM before DNA testing and best in predictively tested carriers without HCM. The latter group had even significantly better quality of life than the general population. Substantial determinants of impaired physical quality of life were symptoms (beta = 5.2, P = 0.001) and stronger belief in serious consequences of carriership (beta = 3.5, P < 0.001); determinants of impaired mental quality of life were physical comorbidity (beta = 3.0, P = 0.020) and a higher perceived risk of symptoms (beta = 0.9, P = 0.001). Female gender (beta = 1.4, P = 0.004) and stronger emotional reactions (beta = 1.2, P = 0.002) were associated with more anxiety. Less understanding of carriership (beta = 0.9, P = 0.007) and stronger belief in serious consequences (beta = 0.8, P = 0.008) increased depression. Levels of quality of life and distress were not impaired compared to the Dutch population. Illness and risk perception related variables were major determinants of quality of life and distress. Because these variables can be addressed and adjusted during pre- and post-test counseling, genetic counseling should focus on these determinants.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 04/2009; 149A(4):602-12. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.32710 · 2.16 Impact Factor