Chromatin modifications by methylation and ubiquitination: implications in the regulation of gene expression.

Saint Louis University School of Medicine and the Saint Louis University Cancer Center, St. Louis, Missouri 63104, USA.
Annual Review of Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 26.53). 02/2006; 75:243-69. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.biochem.75.103004.142422
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is more evident now than ever that nucleosomes can transmit epigenetic information from one cell generation to the next. It has been demonstrated during the past decade that the posttranslational modifications of histone proteins within the chromosome impact chromatin structure, gene transcription, and epigenetic information. Multiple modifications decorate each histone tail within the nucleosome, including some amino acids that can be modified in several different ways. Covalent modifications of histone tails known thus far include acetylation, phosphorylation, sumoylation, ubiquitination, and methylation. A large body of experimental evidence compiled during the past several years has demonstrated the impact of histone acetylation on transcriptional control. Although histone modification by methylation and ubiquitination was discovered long ago, it was only recently that functional roles for these modifications in transcriptional regulation began to surface. Highlighted in this review are the recent biochemical, molecular, cellular, and physiological functions of histone methylation and ubiquitination involved in the regulation of gene expression as determined by a combination of enzymological, structural, and genetic methodologies.

  • Source
    01/2010, Degree: PhD, Supervisor: Ian Wilmut, Sari Pennings, Jane Taylor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is aberrantly activated in many human cancers, including breast cancer. Activation of MAPK signaling is associated with the increased expression of a wide range of genes that promote cell survival, proliferation, and migration. This report investigated the influence of MAPK signaling on the regulation and expression of JUNB in human breast cancer cell lines. JUNB has been associated with tumor suppressor and oncogenic functions, with most reports describing JUNB as an oncogene in breast cancer. Our results indicated that JUNB expression is elevated in MCF10A(met), SKBR3, and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines compared to nontransformed MCF10A mammary epithelial cells. Increased RAS/MAPK signaling in MCF10A(met) cells correlates with the increased association of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) phosphorylated on serine 5 (Pol IIser5p) with the JUNB proximal promoter. Pol IIser5p is the "transcription initiating" form of Pol II. Treatment with U0126, a MAPK pathway inhibitor, reduces Pol IIser5p association with the JUNB proximal promoter and reduces JUNB expression. Oncostatin M (OSM) enhances MAPK and STAT3 signaling and significantly induces JUNB expression. U0126 treatment reduces OSM-induced Pol IIser5p binding to the JUNB proximal promoter and JUNB expression, but does not reduce pSTAT3 levels or the association of pSTAT3 with the JUNB proximal promoter. These results demonstrate that the MAPK pathway plays a primary role in the control of JUNB gene expression by promoting the association of Pol IIser5p with the JUNB proximal promoter.
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 02/2015; 403(1-2). DOI:10.1007/s11010-015-2342-1 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Here we show that the Ino80 chromatin remodeling complex (Ino80C) directly prevents euchromatin from invading transcriptionally silent chromatin within intergenic regions and at the border of euchromatin and heterochromatin. Deletion of Ino80C subunits leads to increased H3K79 methylation and noncoding RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription centered at the Ino80C-binding sites. The effect of Ino80C is direct, as it blocks H3K79 methylation by Dot1 in vitro. Heterochromatin stimulates the binding of Ino80C in vitro and in vivo. Our data reveal that Ino80C serves as a general silencing complex that restricts transcription to gene units in euchromatin. © 2015 Xue et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.


Available from