Leptin and resistin levels and their relationships with glucose metabolism in children with chronic renal insufficiency and undergoing dialysis
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is: (i) to evaluate the serum concentrations of leptin and resistin in the paediatric patients with chronic renal impairment (CRI), on haemodialysis (HD) and on peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment; (ii) to examine the relationship between these hormones; and (iii) to investigate the possible influence of these hormones on the insulin resistance and sensitivity indexes as well as on serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels.
In total, 52 patients (15 patients with CRI, 24 PD patients and 13 HD patients) and 23 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in the present study.
Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was higher than 2.5 in 47.1% of the patients. IGF-1 levels of patients with CRI, PD and HD patients were significantly lower than those in the controls (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). The leptin levels of patients with CRI and on PD and HD treatment were significantly higher than the control group (P = 0.038, P = 0.002, P = 0.006, respectively). Similarly, serum resistin levels of patients with CRI and those of PD and HD patients were higher when compared with healthy controls (P = 0.037, P < 0.001, P = 0.005, respectively).
Leptin and resistin levels were increased in the children with CRF; however, this elevation was not found to be associated with hyperinsulinism. Further studies to explain the mechanisms and consequences of the accumulation of these hormones in CRF may provide the therapeutical approach aiming to normalize their circulating levels.
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ABSTRACT: Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common complication in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Components incorporated in the regulation of appetite and body composition appear to be of the focus in renal insufficiency and may influence the CKD-associated PEM. The purpose of this study was to investigate plasma levels of appetite-regulating hormones and their correlation with the body composition variables in a pediatric in predialysis stage of CKD. Thirty children with CKD in predialysis stage were selected and compared with 30 healthy sex- and age-matched controls. Blood samples were collected in fasting. Serum total ghrelin, leptin, and obestatin levels were measured using enzyme immunometric assay methods. Anthropometric parameters measurement and body composition analysis were done using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) method. Patients showed insignificant elevated total ghrelin (105.40±30.83 ng/l), leptin (5.32±1.17 ng/ml) and obestatin (5.07±1.09 ng/ml) levels in comparison with healthy participants. By using BIA, patients had significantly different Dry Lean Weight (P=0.048), Extra Cellular Water (P=0.045), Body Cell Mass (BCM) (P=0.021), Basal Metabolic Rate (P=0.033) and Body Mass Index (P=0.029) compared with controls. Furthermore, the total body water was slightly and the ECW was significantly higher in CKD participants. There were significant negative correlation between obestatin and BCM (r=-0.40, P=0.03) and fat free mass index (FFMI) (r=-0.40, P=0.029) in patients. It seems that our results are insufficient to clarify the role of appetite-regulating hormones in PEM in CKD patients. It is apparent that there are still many unknown parameters related to both appetite regulating and CKD-associated PEM.
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ABSTRACT: The onset of puberty is the sum of complex and multifactorial mechanisms resulting from the action of both activating and inhibiting factors, leading to the maturation of the gonads and the ability to reproduce. Many contributors to pubertal development are involved in fat mass acquisition and their action is relayed through the hypothalamus. It is therefore easy to understand how chronic diseases can affect the development of puberty and fertility apart from the specific impact of their molecular alteration. We have chosen cystic fibrosis and chronic renal disease as examples of chronic disorders affecting puberty through distinct mechanisms. As drugs are undistinguishable from chronic diseases, we also describe the impact of corticosteroids and chemotherapy on reproductive function. Last, we describe the surveillance and care of pubertal delay and its consequences (growth and bone mineralization) of patients affected with chronic disorders during adolescence.Archives de Pédiatrie 04/2013; · 0.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Renal function may be a major determinant of resistin levels, since most studies revealed association between elevated resistin levels and decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether serum resistin is associated with markers of malnutrition and inflammation in elderly non-diabetic adults in different stages of CKD including hemodialysis. This was a cross-sectional study of 80 elderly patients divided in four groups of 20 patients each according to eGFR and matched for age (+/- 5 years) and gender. Patients with eGFR more than 1.5 mL/second served as controls. Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the association of resistin with eGFR, demographic, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and insulin resistance. Hematological, biochemical, and immunochemical analyses were performed using commercially available enzyme immunoassays. Our results showed that: 1) serum resistin levels were two times higher in patients with advanced CKD especially those undergoing hemodialysis compared to controls, 2) in univariate analysis, resistin levels correlated directly with Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), high sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), and serum phosphate and inversely correlated with albumin, eGFR, and hematocrit levels. We failed to reveal any relationship between resistin levels and Homeostasis Model Assessment Score of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), body mass index (BMI), cholesterol and leptin levels, 3) in multivariate analysis, only TNF-alpha (p < 0.001) and hsCRP (p = 0.032) were the most important independent determinants of serum resistin levels. These results indicate that resistin increases as GFR declines and may be involved in the malnutrition-inflammation state and the reverse epidemiology phenomenon present in elderly, non-diabetic patients with CKD.Clinical laboratory 01/2013; 59(9-10):1121-8. DOI:10.7754/Clin.Lab.2012.121112 · 1.08 Impact Factor