Porcine small intestine submucosa augmentation of surgical repair of chronic two-tendon rotator cuff tears - A randomized, controlled trial
ABSTRACT Evidence to justify the use of porcine small intestine submucosa to augment repairs of large and massive rotator cuff tears is based on favorable results found in studies of Achilles tendon and infraspinatus tendon repairs in canines. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a small intestine submucosal patch to augment the repair of chronic two-tendon rotator cuff tears in humans.
Thirty shoulders with a chronic two-tendon rotator cuff tear that was completely repairable with open surgery were randomized to be treated with either augmentation with porcine small intestine mucosa or no augmentation. All patients completed a PENN shoulder-score questionnaire preoperatively and at the time of the latest follow-up (at an average of fourteen months). Magnetic resonance imaging showed that nine shoulders had a large tear and twenty-one had a massive tear. All patients underwent a magnetic resonance imaging scan with intra-articular gadolinium one year after the repair to assess the status of the rotator cuff.
The rotator cuff healed in four of the fifteen shoulders in the augmentation group compared with nine of the fifteen in the control group (p = 0.11). The median postoperative PENN total score was 83 points in the augmentation group compared with 91 points in the control group (p = 0.07). Healing of the defects in both groups demonstrated a strong correlation with the patients' clinical scores. The median postoperative PENN total score was 96 points in the group with a healed repair and 81 points in the group with a failed repair (p = 0.007). The percentage change between the preoperative and postoperative patient satisfaction scores was 400% in the group with a healed repair, and 50% in the group with a failed repair (p = 0.04).
Augmentation of the surgical repair of large and massive chronic rotator cuff tears with porcine small intestine submucosa did not improve the rate of tendon-healing or the clinical outcome scores. On the basis of these data, we do not recommend using porcine small intestine submucosa to augment repairs of massive chronic rotator cuff tears done with the surgical and postoperative procedures described in this study.
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ABSTRACT: Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and porcine small intestinal submucosa (pSIS) are patch materials used in congenital heart surgery. Porcine SIS is an extracellular-matrix scaffold that may interact with stem or progenitor cells. To evaluate this, we determined the in vitro effects of pSIS and PTFE on human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in 3 areas; cell proliferation, angiogenic growth-factor production, and differentiation. Human MSCs and CPCs were seeded onto pSIS and PTFE patches. Cell-seeded patches were cultured and then assessed for cell viability and proliferation and supernatant vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) levels. Cell proliferation was quantified by MTT assay (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed on cell-seeded scaffolds to determine relative changes in gene expression related to angiogenesis and cardiogenesis. The MSCs and CPCs were able to attach and proliferate on pSIS and PTFE. The proliferation rate of each cell type was similar on pSIS. Total RNA isolation was only possible from the cell-seeded pSIS patches. The MSC VEGFA production was increased by pSIS. Porcine SIS promoted an angiogenic gene profile in MSCs and an early cardiogenic profile in CPCs. Both PTFE and pSIS allow for varying degrees of cell proliferation. Porcine SIS elicits different phenotypical responses in MSCs as compared with CPCs, which indicates that pSIS may be a bioactive scaffold that modulates stem cell activation and proliferation. These findings highlight the differences in scaffold material strategies and suggest potential advantages of bioactive approaches. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: The effective evaluation and management of orthopaedic conditions including shoulder disorders relies upon understanding the level of disability created by the disease process. Validated outcome measures are critical to the evaluation process. Traditionally, outcome measures have been physician derived objective evaluations including range of motion and radiologic evaluations. However, these measures can marginalize a patient's perception of their disability or outcome. As a result of these limitations, patient self-reported outcomes measures have become popular over the last quarter century and are currently primary tools to evaluate outcomes of treatment. Patient reported outcomes measures can be general health related quality of life measures, health utility measures, region specific health related quality of life measures or condition specific measures. Several patients self-reported outcomes measures have been developed and validated for evaluating patients with shoulder disorders. Computer adaptive testing will likely play an important role in the arsenal of measures used to evaluate shoulder patients in the future. The purpose of this article is to review the general health related quality-of-life measures as well as the joint-specific and condition specific measures utilized in evaluating patients with shoulder conditions. Advances in computer adaptive testing as it relates to assessing dysfunction in shoulder conditions will also be reviewed.
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ABSTRACT: The use of biologics in the treatment of musculoskeletal disease has become increasingly more common as research studies continue to provide further elucidation of their mechanisms in healing. Platelet-rich plasma, patches, growth factors, and stem cells are among the many biologics under active investigation and have varying levels of success in augmenting surgical or nonoperative interventions. However, the limitations of these treatments exist, and clear guidelines for their indications and application have yet to be established. Well-designed clinical trials will help determine the appropriate future use of biologics to ensure consistent outcomes.Current Reviews in Musculoskeletal Medicine 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12178-014-9246-7