To study the effects of caesarean section on breastfeeding.
Six hundred and two [301 cases was caesarean section (caesarean section group) and 301 cases was vaginal delivery (vaginal delivery group)] nulliparas were interviewed face-to-face at antepartum and postpartum in an indication-matched prospective study.
There was a significantly lower postpartum prolactin (PRL) level in the caesarean section group (8.48 nmol/L, 95% CI: 7.80 - 9.21 nmol/L) compared with vaginal delivery group (9.61 nmol/L, 95% CI: 8.99 - 10.26 nmol/L) during 6 - 24 hours in the daytime after delivery. The median time of breastfeeding initiation was 12 hours and 2 hours after birth for caesarean section and vaginal delivery groups respectively. Caesarean section was an important hazard for a shorter duration of breastfeeding (RR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.10 - 1.33) within one year after childbirth.
Caesarean section is associated with significantly lower postpartum PRL, which is in line with the longer breastfeeding initiation and lower rate of successful breastfeeding. Necessary measures including promoting the secretion of postpartum PRL such as early contact, early sucking and analgesic method should be taken to improve the successful breastfeeding rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast feeding has a great impact on the infant morbidity and mortality. According to Pakistan Demographic and Health survey (PDHS) infant mortality rate is 78 deaths per 1,000 live births. World Health Organization recommends that exclusive breast feeding for six months can decrease infant mortality rate by one-third. The objective of the study was to find out how the mode of delivery had impact on the practice of breast feeding. Data were collected for 2500 consecutive patients during a period of two years, and it was seen that maternal initiative to breast feed was low and problems with lactation were much more in cases delivering their babies via cesarean sections than those delivering theirs by normal delivery. Vaginal and cesarean section deliveries took place in 54% and 46% of the case, respectively. Thirty percent of the women studied felt that they had no problems regarding breastfeeding, but 70% of them had some sort of problems with breastfeeding their babies. When the women were matched for the mode of delivery, 58% of women who had breastfeeding problems belonged to the cesarean delivery group and 42% of complaining mothers were from women with normal delivery. The relative risk of having problems with breastfeeding for women subjected to cesarean was 1.38 and the odds ratio was 0.61. The findings of the present study indicate that more in depth counseling sessions are required for women undergoing operative delivery to improve breast feeding among them.
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences 06/2011; 36(2):128-32.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review aims to describe changes in breastfeeding and summarise the breastfeeding rates, duration and reasons of discontinuing 'any breastfeeding' or 'exclusive breastfeeding' in P.R. China. Breastfeeding rates in China fell during the 1970s when the use of breast milk substitutes became widespread, and reached the lowest point in the 1980s. As a result many efforts were introduced to promote breastfeeding. The breastfeeding rate in China started to increase in the 1990s, and since the mid-1990s 'any breastfeeding' rates in the majority of cities and provinces, including minority areas, have been above 80% at four months. But most cities and provinces did not reach the national target of 'exclusive breastfeeding' of 80%. The 'exclusive breastfeeding' rates in minority areas were relatively lower than comparable inland provinces. The mean duration of 'any breastfeeding' in the majority of cities or provinces was between seven and nine months. The common reasons for ceasing breastfeeding, or introducing water or other infant food before four months, were perceived breast milk insufficiency, mother going to work, maternal and child illness and breast problems. Incorrect traditional perceptions have a strong adverse influence on 'exclusive breastfeeding' in less developed areas or rural areas. China is a huge country, geographically and in population size, and there is considerable ethnic diversity. Therefore breastfeeding rates in different parts of China can vary considerably.
International Breastfeeding Journal 07/2009; 4(1):6. DOI:10.1186/1746-4358-4-6
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding remains low in many countries. Furthermore, cesarean delivery (CD) is increasing and may affect breastfeeding success.
The objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to determine whether CD (prelabor or in-labor) is associated with a lower rate of breastfeeding compared with vaginal delivery (VD).
Studies published before January 2011 that reported breastfeeding up to 6 mo postpartum and compared outcomes after CD or VD, including foreign language publications, were identified through PubMed and bibliographic review. Prespecified data were extracted independently by multiple observers. The types of CD [prelabor (elective/scheduled) or in-labor (emergency)] were compared by subgroup analyses. Potential sources of study-level bias were analyzed by using meta-regression and sensitivity analyses.
The systematic review included 53 studies (554,568 subjects, 33 countries); 25 authors contributed additional data (245,455 subjects), and 48 studies (553,306 subjects, 31 countries) were included in the meta-analysis. Rates of early breastfeeding (any initiation or at hospital discharge) were lower after CD compared with after VD (pooled OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.64; P < 0.00001) and lower after prelabor but not after in-labor CD (prelabor OR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.80, 0.86; P < 0.00001; in-labor OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.04; P = 0.86). In mothers who initiated breastfeeding, CD had no significant effect on any breastfeeding at 6 mo (OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.89, 1.01; P = 0.08).
There was a negative association between prelabor CD and early breastfeeding. If breastfeeding is initiated, mode of delivery has no apparent effect on the number of mothers still breastfeeding at 6 mo. Women and health care workers should be aware of the negative associations between CD and early breastfeeding and consequent implications for infants' well-being.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/2012; 95(5):1113-35. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.111.030254 · 6.77 Impact Factor
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