Thromboprophylaxis in microsurgery

Dpts of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Sart Tilman, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium.
Acta chirurgica Belgica (Impact Factor: 0.41). 04/2006; 106(2):158-64.
Source: PubMed


Microsurgical free tissue transfer has become a gold standard in a wide range of clinical situations. Thrombosis at the anastomotic site is not only the most common cause of failure of microsurgical operations, but it is also one of the factors resulting in microcirculatory intravascular thrombosis in free flaps. All conditions of thrombus formation, defined by Virchow in 1856, are encountered in free flap surgery. This literature review concerns the problem of thromboprophylaxis in microsurgery. All citations published this last ten years (1996-2005) concerning this problem are noted. Data are confronted with other specialties, particularly vascular surgery, or with large retrospective studies. Protocol used in our institution is presented at the end of this lecture.

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    ABSTRACT: Despite increasing advances in microvascular free tissue transfer, flap failures, most commonly resulting from thrombosis at the anastomotic vascular site, remain a significant concern. Although several experimental and clinical studies have been carried out, no consensus has been reached so far on the efficacy, dosage and timing of anticoagulant agents available for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis in microvascular surgery. Inhibition of fibrin formation and platelet function or the use of thrombolytic agents is a common approach in the antithrombotic management. However, some agents exhibit serious side effects and all of them carry the risk of bleedings. The current literature on the use of antithrombotic agents, targeting at clinical trials in microvascular surgery, is therefore reviewed, to provide an informative basis for recommendations for an appropriate pharmacological approach.
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