Differential and reciprocal regulation between hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha subunits and their prolyl hydroxylases in pulmonary arteries of rat with hypoxia-induced hypertension.
ABSTRACT Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-alpha subunits (HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha and HIF-3alpha), which play a pivotal role during the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH), are regulated through post-translational hydroxylation by their three prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHD1, PHD2 and PHD3). PHDs could also be regulated by HIF. But differential and reciprocal regulation between HIF-alpha and PHDs during the development of HPH remains unclear. To investigate this problem, a rat HPH model was established. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased significantly after 7 d of hypoxia. Pulmonary artery remodeling index and right ventricular hypertrophy became evident after 14 d of hypoxia. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA increased slightly after 7 d of hypoxia, but HIF-3alpha increased significantly after 3 d of hypoxia. The protein expression levels of all three HIF-alpha were markedly upregulated after exposure to hypoxia. PHD2 mRNA and protein expression levels were upregulated after 3 d of hypoxia; PHD1 protein declined after 14 d of hypoxia without significant mRNA changes. PHD3 mRNA and protein were markedly upregulated after 3 d of hypoxia, then the mRNA remained at a high level, but the protein declined after 14 d of hypoxia. In hypoxic animals, HIF-1alpha proteins negatively correlated with PHD2 proteins, whereas HIF-2alpha and HIF-3alpha proteins showed negative correlations with PHD3 and PHD1 proteins, respectively. All three HIF-alpha proteins were positively correlated with PHD2 and PHD3 mRNA. In the present study, HIF-alpha subunits and PHDs showed differential and reciprocal regulation, and this might play a key pathogenesis role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha subunit (HIF-1alpha) plays a pivotal role during the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension (HPH) by transactivating it' target genes. As an oxygen-sensitive attenuator, factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH) hydroxylates a conserved asparagine residue within the C-terminal transactivation domain of HIF-1alpha under normoxia and moderate hypoxia. FIH protein is downregulated in response to hypoxia, but its dynamic expression and role during the development of HPH remains unclear. In this study, an HPH rat model was established. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased significantly after 7 d of hypoxia. The pulmonary artery remodeling index became evident after 7 d of hypoxia, while the right ventricular hypertrophy index became significant after 14 d of hypoxia. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of HIF-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a well-characterized target gene of HIF-1alpha, were markedly upregulated after exposure to hypoxia in pulmonary arteries. FIH protein in lung tissues declined after 7 d of hypoxia and continued to decline through the duration of hypoxia. FIH mRNA had few changes after exposure to hypoxia compared with after exposure to normoxia. In hypoxic rats, FIH protein showed significant negative correlation with VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein. FIH protein was negatively correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure, pulmonary artery remodeling index and right ventricular hypertrophy index. Taken together, our results suggest that, in the pulmonary arteries of rat exposed to moderate hypoxia, a time-dependent decrease in FIH protein may contribute to the development of rat HPH by enhancing the transactivation of HIF-1alpha target genes such as VEGF.Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica 11/2008; 40(10):883-92. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The oxygen sensitive alpha-subunit of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a major trigger of the cellular response to hypoxia. Although the posttranslational regulation of HIF-1alpha by hypoxia is well known, its transcriptional regulation by hypoxia is still under debate. We, therefore, investigated the regulation of HIF-1alpha mRNA in response to hypoxia in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Hypoxia rapidly enhanced HIF-1alpha mRNA levels and HIF-1alpha promoter activity. Furthermore, inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathway blocked the hypoxia-dependent induction of HIF-1alpha mRNA and HIF-1alpha promoter activity, suggesting involvement of a PI3K/AKT-regulated transcription factor. Interestingly, hypoxia also induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkappaB) nuclear translocation and activity. In line, expression of the NFkappaB subunits p50 and p65 enhanced HIF-1alpha mRNA levels, whereas blocking of NFkappaB by an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB attenuated HIF-1alpha mRNA induction by hypoxia. Reporter gene assays revealed the presence of an NFkappaB site within the HIF-1alpha promoter, and mutation of this site abolished induction by hypoxia. In line, gel shift analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed binding of p50 and p65 NFkappaB subunits to the HIF-1alpha promoter under hypoxia. Together, these findings provide a novel mechanism in which hypoxia induces HIF-1alpha mRNA expression via the PI3K/AKT pathway and activation of NFkappaB.Molecular Biology of the Cell 01/2008; 18(12):4691-7. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of preeclampsia, a serious pregnancy disorder, is still elusive and its treatment empirical. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is crucial for placental development and early detection of aberrant regulatory mechanisms of HIF-1 could impact on the diagnosis and management of preeclampsia. HIF-1α stability is controlled by O(2)-sensing enzymes including prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs), Factor Inhibiting HIF (FIH), and E3 ligases Seven In Absentia Homologues (SIAHs). Here we investigated early- (E-PE) and late-onset (L-PE) human preeclamptic placentae and their ability to sense changes in oxygen tension occurring during normal placental development. Expression of PHD2, FIH and SIAHs were significantly down-regulated in E-PE compared to control and L-PE placentae, while HIF-1α levels were increased. PHD3 expression was increased due to decreased FIH levels as demonstrated by siRNA FIH knockdown experiments in trophoblastic JEG-3 cells. E-PE tissues had markedly diminished HIF-1α hydroxylation at proline residues 402 and 564 as assessed with monoclonal antibodies raised against hydroxylated HIF-1α P402 or P564, suggesting regulation by PHD2 and not PHD3. Culturing villous explants under varying oxygen tensions revealed that E-PE, but not L-PE, placentae were unable to regulate HIF-1α levels because PHD2, FIH and SIAHs did not sense a hypoxic environment. Disruption of oxygen sensing in E-PE vs. L-PE and control placentae is the first molecular evidence of the existence of two distinct preeclamptic diseases and the unique molecular O(2)-sensing signature of E-PE placentae may be of diagnostic value when assessing high risk pregnancies and their severity.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(10):e13288. · 3.73 Impact Factor