Congenital brain tumours are rare. They account for 0.5% to 1.9% of intracranial tumours in childhood and have an incidence of 0.34 per million live births. Most congenital brain tumours are neuro-ectodermal tumours and medulloblastomas; giant cell astrocytoma and other tuberous sclerosis-related tumours are rare. We report on a neonate who developed seizures that were refractory to medical treatment. Imaging studies revealed a right frontal calcified tumour. Surgical resection was performed successfully and pathology revealed the tumour to be a giant cell astrocytoma. The child was seizure-free afterwards.
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"Congenital brain tumors constitute 0.5–1.9% of all childhood brain tumors and the incidence is 0.34/million live births. Most are neurectodermal tumors or medulloblastomas (Hon et al., 2006). Chemotherapy has a unique place in the therapy of infants because of the risks to the developing nervous system of radiation therapy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumors of the nervous system are among the most common and most chemoresistant neoplasms of childhood and adolescence. Malignant tumors of the brain collectively account for 21% of all cancers and 24% of all cancer-related deaths in this age group. Neuroblastoma, a peripheral nervous system tumor, is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, and 65% of children with this tumor have only a 10 or 15% chance of living 5 years beyond the time of initial diagnosis. Novel pharmacological approaches to nervous system tumors are urgently needed. This review presents the role of and current challenges to pharmacotherapy of malignant tumors of the nervous system during childhood and adolescence and discusses novel approaches aimed at overcoming these challenges.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are benign tumors that constitute one of the primary features of tuberous sclerosis. Two infants with tuberous sclerosis had very unusual subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, confirmed on biopsy in one of the infants. In both cases, contrast-enhanced cranial magnetic resonance imaging suggested a calcified intra-axial mass with diffuse basal ganglia involvement extending into the lateral ventricle. Computed tomography confirmed calcification in both cases. The first patient had right temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy. Biopsy of the basal ganglia lesion in that case suggested subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. In infants, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas can present with unusual morphology and may feature diffuse basal ganglia involvement and severe calcification.