Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue steroid levels in obese men.
ABSTRACT We examined plasma and fat tissue sex steroid levels in a sample of 28 men aged 24.8-62.2 years (average BMI value of 46.3 +/- 12.7 kg/m(2)). Abdominal adipose tissue biopsies were obtained during general or obesity surgery. Omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue steroid levels were measured by gas chromatography and chemical ionization mass spectrometry after appropriate extraction procedures. BMI and waist circumference were negatively correlated with plasma testosterone (r = -0.49 and -0.50, respectively, p < 0.01) and dihydrotestosterone (r = -0.58 and -0.56, respectively, p < 0.01), and positively associated with estrone levels (r = 0.64 and 0.62, respectively, p < 0.001). Regional differences in adipose tissue steroid levels were observed for dihydrotestosterone (p < 0.005), androstenedione (p < 0.0001) and dehydroepiandrosterone levels (p < 0.05), which were all significantly more concentrated in omental versus subcutaneous fat. Positive significant associations were found between circulating level of a steroid and its concentration in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue, for estrone (r = 0.72 and 0.57, respectively, p < 0.01), testosterone (r = 0.66 and 0.58, respectively, p < 0.01) and dihydrotestosterone (r = 0.58 and 0.45, respectively, p < 0.05). Positive correlations were observed between plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate and omental (r = 0.56, p < 0.01) as well as subcutaneous adipose tissue dehydroepiandrosterone level (r = 0.38, p = 0.05). Positive significant associations were found between omental adipocyte responsiveness to positive lipolytic stimuli (isoproterenol, dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin) and plasma or omental fat tissue androgen levels. In conclusion, although plasma androgen or estrogen levels are strong correlates of adipose tissue steroid content both in the omental and subcutaneous fat depots, regional differences may be observed. Androgen concentration differences in omental versus subcutaneous adipose tissue suggest a depot-specific impact of these hormones on adipocyte function and metabolism.
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ABSTRACT: Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) originates via irreversible reduction of testosterone by catalytic activity of 5alpha-reductase enzyme and it is demonstratively the most effective androgen. Androgens influence adipose tissue in men either directly by stimulation of the androgen receptor or indirectly, after aromatization, by acting at the estrogen receptor. DHT as a non-aromatizable androgen could be responsible for a male type fat distribution. The theory of non-aromatizable androgens as a potential cause of a male type obesity development has been studied intensively. However, physiological levels of DHT inhibit growth of mature adipocytes. In animal models, substitution of DHT in males after gonadectomy has a positive effect on body composition as a testosterone therapy. Thus, DHT within physiological range positively influences body composition. However, there are pathological conditions with an abundance of DHT, e.g. androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia. These diseases are considered as risk factors for development of metabolic syndrome or atherosclerosis. In obese people, DHT metabolism in adipose tissue is altered. Local abundance of non-aromatizable androgen has a negative effect on adipose tissue and it could be involved in pathogenesis of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Increased DHT levels, compared to physiological levels, have negative effect on development of cardiovascular diseases. Difference between the effect of physiological and increased level brings about certain paradox.Physiological research / Academia Scientiarum Bohemoslovaca 11/2010; 60(2):253-61. · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are class of molecular regulators found to participate in numerous biological processes, such as adipogenesis and obesity in mammals. To determine the roles of miRNAs involved in castration-induced body fatness, we investigated the different miRNA expression patterns in subcutaneous adipose tissue between intact and castrated male pigs. Our results showed that castration led to decrease serum testosterone but increase serum Leptin levels (P < 0.01). Moreover, castration also increased adipocyte size, body fat content and backfat thickness in male pigs (P < 0.01). Meanwhile, miRNA expression profiles in adipose tissue were changed by castration, and 18 miRNAs were considered as the differentially expressed candidates between intact and castrated male pigs. Furthermore, functional analysis indicated that the differential expressed miRNAs and their target genes are involved in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. In brief, our present study provides a comprehensive view on how miRNAs works in subcutaneous adipose tissue with castration. These results suggested that miRNAs might play an important role in the castration-induced fat deposition in male pigs.Journal of applied genetics 01/2014; · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity is rising to epidemic proportions throughout the world, and much emphasis has been placed on the long-term consequences that can result later, in adulthood. This article reviews the metabolic consequences of obesity that can manifest as disease during the childhood years. Obese children suffer from many disease processes once thought to affect only adults. They can have type 2 diabetes mellitus, and potentially early β cell failure with rapid progression to an insulin requirement. There is a high prevalence of fatty liver disease in obese children, and complications such as steatohepatitis and even cirrhosis can develop during childhood. Visceral fat has been shown to have many different properties than subcutaneous fat, and children with central adiposity can develop the metabolic syndrome with insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Hyperandrogenism, sleep disturbances, and many types of orthopedic complications can also develop in young children. Physicians should not only warn obese children and their families about the long-term consequences of obesity for which they are at risk in adulthood, they should also screen for the many diseases that may already be present.Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity 02/2011; 18(1):23-7. · 3.77 Impact Factor