Antibiotic sensitivities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, and group A hemolytic streptococci isolated from the maxillary and ethmoid sinuses.
ABSTRACT To investigate antibiotic sensitivities of Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, and group A hemolytic streptococci isolated from the culture materials obtained from the sinuses of patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery due to chronic sinusitis.
We recruited 93 patients (63 males, 30 females; mean age 36+/-17.5; range 19 to 68 years) who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery due to chronic sinusitis. Before surgical intervention, in order to eliminate a possible contamination from the skin and neighboring structures, nasal mucosa was cleansed with povidone-iodine solution. Nasal smear samples were obtained from all the patients before and after applying povidone-iodine solution. Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci and group A hemolytic streptococci that were isolated from the cultures were tested for antibiotic sensitivity.
The number of anaerobic bacteria isolated from 58 patients (62.3%) before applying povidone-iodine was 72, following the application of povidone-iodine a total of 16 microorganisms were identified from 12 patients (12.9%). Microorganisms were isolated from 95.6% (89/93) of the samples obtained from the maxillary sinuses and 91.3% (85/93) of the samples obtained from the ethmoid sinuses. The most commonly identified microorganisms from both sinuses were coagulase negative staphylococcus followed by viridans streptococci, coagulase positive staphylococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and group A hemolytic streptococci. For viridans streptococcal strains that were isolated, 33.3% were resistant to tetracycline, 23.8% to chloramphenicol, and 19.04% to penicillin. Hemolytic streptococci strains were sensitive to penicillin, ofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and cefepime in all the groups; however, they had 50% resistance to erythromycin and chloramphenicol and 100% resistance to tetracycline. The resistance pattern of the isolated Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were as follows: 25% to penicillin, 66.6% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 41.6% to erythromycin, 58.3% to tetracycline, 33.3% to chloramphenicol and 16.6% to rifampin. All of the isolated strains were sensitive to vancomycin.
We suggest that identification of strains that are resistant to penicillin and other antibiotics is an important tool for choosing empirical treatment for Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, and group A hemolytic streptococci in clinical practice. Viridans streptococci which are frequently isolated from chronic sinusitis patients should be kept in mind.