Cholestasis protects the liver from ischaemic injury and post-ischaemic inflammation in the mouse.

Swiss Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Centre, Department of Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University Hospital of Zurich, Zürich, Switzerland.
Gut (Impact Factor: 10.73). 02/2007; 56(1):121-8. DOI: 10.1136/gut.2006.097170
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cholestasis is associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing major liver surgery, but the mechanisms responsible remain elusive. Increased ischaemic liver injury and inflammation may contribute to the poor outcome.
Common bile duct ligation (biliary obstruction with hyperbilirubinaemia) or selective ligation of the left hepatic duct (biliary obstruction without hyperbilirubinaemia) was performed in C57BL/6 mice before 1 h of hepatic ischaemia and 1, 4 or 24 h of reperfusion. Infection with the intracellular hepatic pathogen Listeria monocytogenes for 12 and 48 h was used to study ischaemia-independent hepatic inflammation.
Cholestatic mice showed considerable protection from ischaemic liver injury as determined by transaminase release, histological liver injury and neutrophil infiltration. In cholestatic mice, reduced injury correlated with a failure to activate nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) mRNA synthesis, two key mediators of post-ischaemic liver inflammation. After selective bile duct ligation, both the ligated and the non-ligated lobes showed blocked activation of NFkappaB as well as reduced induction of TNFalpha mRNA synthesis and neutrophil infiltration. By contrast, infection with L monocytogenes showed comparable activation of NFkappaB and hepatic recruitment of neutrophils 12 h after infection.
Cholestasis does not increase but rather dramatically protects the liver from ischaemic injury and inflammation. This effect is mediated by a systemic factor, but not bilirubin, and is associated with a preserved capacity to trigger an inflammatory response to other stimuli such as a bacterial pathogen.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim was to investigate the impact of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) on intrahepatic oxidative stress, oxidative phosphorylation, and nucleotide metabolism in relation to liver damage and inflammation in cholestatic rats to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for post-I/R pathogenesis during cholestasis. Pre-I/R cholestatic livers exhibited mild hepatopathology in the form of oxidative/nitrosative stress, perfusion defects, necrosis and apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Plasma bilirubin concentration in cholestatic livers was 190 μM. I/R in cholestatic livers exacerbated hepatocellular damage and leukocyte infiltration. However, myeloperoxidase activity in neutrophils at 6 h reperfusion was not elevated in cholestatic livers compared to pre-I/R levels and to control (Ctrl) livers. At 6 h reperfusion, cholestatic livers exhibited severe histological damage, which was absent in Ctrl livers. Despite a lower antioxidative capacity after I/R, no cardiolipin peroxidation and equivalent reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratios and Hsp70 levels were found in cholestatic livers versus Ctrls. Bilirubin acted as a potent and protective antioxidant. Postischemic resumption of oxidative phosphorylation in Ctrl livers proceeded rapidly and encompassed reactive hyperemia, which was significantly impaired in cholestatic livers owing to extensive vasoconstriction and perfusion defects. Normalization of intrahepatic energy status and nucleotide-based metabolic cofactors was delayed in cholestatic livers during reperfusion. Innovation and Cholestatic livers possess sufficient antioxidative capacity to ameliorate radical-mediated damage during I/R. I/R-induced damage in cholestatic livers is predominantly caused by microvascular perfusion defects rather than exuberant oxidative/nitrosative stress. The forestalled rate of oxidative phophorylation and recovery of bioenergetic and possibly metabolic parameters during the early reperfusion phase are responsible for extensive liver damage.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 04/2012; 17(8):1109-23. · 8.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) signaling predominantly regulates production of type I Interferons (IFNs), which has been suggested in clinical studies to be anti-fibrotic. However, the mechanistic role of the TLR7-type I IFN axis in liver fibrosis has not been elucidated. In the present study, liver fibrosis was induced in wild-type (WT), TLR7-deficient, and IFN-α/β receptor-1 (IFNAR1)-deficient mice and TLR7-mediated signaling was assessed in liver cells isolated from these mice. TLR7-deficient and IFNAR1-deficient mice were more susceptible to liver fibrosis than WT mice, indicating that TLR7-type I IFN signaling exerts a protective effect against liver fibrosis. Notably, the hepatic expression of IL-1ra was suppressed in TLR7- or IFNAR1-deficient mice compared with respective WT mice, and treatment with recombinant IL-1ra reduced liver fibrosis. In vivo activation of TLR7 significantly increased IFNa4 and IL-1ra expression in the liver. Interestingly, each cytokine had different cellular source showing that dendritic cells (DCs) are responsible cell type for production of type I IFN, while Kupffer cells (KCs) mainly produce IL-1ra in response to type I IFN. Furthermore, TLR7 activation by R848 injection suppressed liver fibrosis and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and these effects were dependent on type I IFN signaling. Consistent with in vivo data, IFNα significantly induced IL-1ra production in primary KCs. Conclusions: TLR7 signaling activates DCs to produce type I IFN, which in turn induces anti-fibrogenic IL-1ra production in KCs. Thus, manipulation of the TLR7-type I IFN-IL-1ra axis may be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver fibrosis. (Hepatology 2013;).
    Hepatology 12/2013; · 12.00 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human chronic cholestatic liver diseases are characterized by cholangiocyte proliferation, hepatocyte injury, and fibrosis. Yes-associated protein (YAP), the effector of the Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway, has been shown to play a critical role in promoting cholangiocyte and hepatocyte proliferation and survival during embryonic liver development and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether YAP participates in the regenerative response after cholestatic injury. First, we examined human liver tissue from patients with chronic cholestasis. We found more-active nuclear YAP in the bile ductular reactions of primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis patient liver samples. Next, we used the murine bile duct ligation (BDL) model to induce cholestatic liver injury. We found significant changes in YAP activity after BDL in wild-type mice. The function of YAP in the hepatic response after BDL was further evaluated with liver-specific Yap conditional deletion in mice. Ablating Yap in the mouse liver not only compromised bile duct proliferation, but also enhanced hepatocyte necrosis and suppressed hepatocyte proliferation after BDL. Furthermore, primary hepatocytes and cholangiocytes isolated from Yap-deficient livers showed reduced proliferation in response to epidermal growth factor in vitro. Finally, we demonstrated that YAP likely mediates its biological effects through the modulation of Survivin expression. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that YAP promotes cholangiocyte and hepatocyte proliferation and prevents parenchymal damage after cholestatic injury in mice and thus may mediate the response to cholestasis-induced human liver disease.
    Hepatology 08/2012; 56(3):1097-107. · 12.00 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 26, 2014