Direct cDNA cloning of novel conotoxins of the T-superfamily from Conus textile.
ABSTRACT The T-superfamily is a large and diverse group of peptides, widely distributed in venom ducts of all major feeding types of Conus. These peptides are likely to be functionally diverse. A directed PCR-based approach using primers based on the conserved signal sequence was applied to investigate new conotoxins of the T-superfamily from Conus textile native to Hainan. Using RT-PCR and 3'-RACE, four novel cDNA sequences encoding precursor peptides were identified in C. textile. They share a common T-superfamily cysteine pattern (CC-CC, with two disulfide bridges). The predicted peptides are small (9-12 amino acids). TeAr193 composed of nine amino acid residues is one of the shortest T-superfamily conotoxins ever found. Patterns of sequence divergence and Cys codon usage define the major T-superfamily branches and suggest how these separate branches arose. The sequences of the signal regions exhibited highest conservation, whereas the sequences of the mature peptides were either almost identical or highly divergent; and conservation of the pro-region was intermediate between that observed in signal and toxin regions. The elucidated cDNAs of the four toxins will facilitate a better understanding of the relationship between structure and function.
Article: Sequencing of T-superfamily conotoxins from Conus virgo: pyroglutamic acid identification and disulfide arrangement by MALDI mass spectrometry.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: De novo mass spectrometric sequencing of two Conus peptides, Vi1359 and Vi1361, from the vermivorous cone snail Conus virgo, found off the southern Indian coast, is presented. The peptides, whose masses differ only by 2 Da, possess two disulfide bonds and an amidated C-terminus. Simple chemical modifications and enzymatic cleavage coupled with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometric analysis aided in establishing the sequences of Vi1359, ZCCITIPECCRI-NH(2), and Vi1361, ZCCPTMPECCRI-NH(2), which differ only at residues 4 and 6 (Z = pyroglutamic acid). The presence of the pyroglutamyl residue at the N-terminus was unambiguously identified by chemical hydrolysis of the cyclic amide, followed by esterification. The presence of Ile residues in both the peptides was confirmed from high-energy collision induced dissociation (CID) studies, using the observation of w(n)- and d(n)-ions as a diagnostic. Differential cysteine labeling, in conjunction with MALDI-MS/MS, permitted establishment of disulfide connectivity in both peptides as Cys2-Cys9 and Cys3-Cys10. The cysteine pattern clearly reveals that the peptides belong to the class of T-superfamily conotoxins, in particular the T-1 superfamily.Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry 09/2007; 18(8):1396-404. · 4.00 Impact Factor