Differential expression profiles of Streptococcus mutans ftf, gtf and vicR genes in the presence of dietary carbohydrates at early and late exponential growth phases.
ABSTRACT Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases that affects humans. Streptococcus mutans, the main pathogenic bacterium associated with dental caries, produces a number of extracellular sucrose-metabolizing enzymes, such as glucosyltransferases (GTFB, GTFC and GTFD) and fructosyltransferase (FTF). The cooperative action of these enzymes is essential for sucrose-dependent cellular adhesion and biofilm formation. A global response regulator (vicR) plays important roles in S. mutans ftf and gtf expression in response to a variety of stimuli. A real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain-reaction was used to quantify the relative levels of ftf, gtfB, gtfC, gtfD and vicR transcription of S. mutans in the presence of various dietary carbohydrates: sucrose, D-glucose, D-fructose, D-glucitol (D-sorbitol), D-mannitol and xylitol. Ftf was highly expressed at late exponential phase in the presence of sorbitol and mannitol. GtfB was highly expressed in the presence of all the above carbohydrates except for xylitol at early exponential growth phase and glucose and fructose at late exponential growth phase. Similar to gtfB, the expression of gtfC was also induced with the presence of all the tested carbohydrates except for xylitol at early growth and glucose and fructose at late exponential phase. In addition, no effect of mannitol on gtfC expression at early exponential phase was observed. GtfD was less influenced compared to the gtfB and gtfC, demonstrating enhanced expression especially in the presence of sorbitol, glucose, mannitol and xylitol at early exponential phase and mannitol at late exponential phase. VicR expression was induced only at the presence of xylitol at late exponential phase, and a decrease in expression was recorded at early exponential phase. Our findings show that dietary carbohydrates have a major influence on the transcription of ftf, gtfB, gtfC and gtfD, but less on vicR. Sorbitol and mannitol, which are considered as noncariogenic sugar substitutes, may indirectly affect caries by promoting biofilm formation via enhanced expression of gtfs and ftf. These results suggest regulatory circuits for exopolysaccharide gene expression in S. mutans.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacies of six derivatives of Compound 2, a novel YycG histidine kinase inhibitor with the thiazolidione core structure in the treatment of medical device-related biofilm infections. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the derivatives was determined using the macrodilution broth method, and the minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) was obtained via sub-culturing 100 μL from each negative tube from the MIC assay onto drug-free Mueller-Hinton agar plates. Biofilm-killing effect for immature (6 h-old) biofilms was examined using a semiquantitative plate assay, and the effect on mature (24 h-old) biofilms was observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). The derivatives potently suppressed the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The MIC values of the derivatives H2-10, H2-12, H2-20, H2-29, H2-27, and H2-28 on S epidermidis ATCC 35984 were 24.3, 6.5, 6.2, 3.3, 3.1, and 1.5 μg/mL, respectively. The MBC values of these derivatives were 48.6, 52.2, 12.4, 52.6, 12.4, and 6.2 μg/mL, respectively. The derivatives killed all bacteria in immature (6 h-old) biofilms and eliminated the biofilm proliferation. The derivatives also displayed strong bactericidal activities toward cells in mature (24 h-old) biofilms, whereas they showed low cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity toward Vero cells and human erythrocytes. The bactericidal and biofilm-killing activities of the new anti-YycG compounds were significantly better than the parent Compound 2.Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 03/2012; 33(3):418-25. · 2.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The two-component system VicRK and the orphan regulator CovR of Streptococcus mutans co-regulate a group of virulence genes associated with the synthesis of and interaction with extracellular polysaccharides of the biofilm matrix. Knockout mutants of vicK and covR display abnormal cell division and morphology phenotypes, although the gene function defects involved are as yet unknown. Using transcriptomic comparisons between parent strain UA159 with vicK (UAvic) or covR (UAcov) deletion mutants together with electrophoretic motility shift assays (EMSA), we identified genes directly regulated by both VicR and CovR with putative functions in cell wall/surface biogenesis, including gbpB, wapE, smaA, SMU.2146c, and lysM. Deletion mutants of genes regulated by VicR and CovR (wapE, lysM, smaA), or regulated only by VicR (SMU.2146c) or CovR (epsC) promoted significant alterations in biofilm initiation, including increased fragility, defects in microcolony formation, and atypical cell morphology and/or chaining. Significant reductions in mureinolytic activity and/or increases in DNA release during growth were observed in knockout mutants of smaA, wapE, lysM, SMU.2146c and epsC, implying roles in cell wall biogenesis. WapE and lysM mutations also affected cell hydrophobicity and sensitivity to osmotic or oxidative stress. Finally, vicR, covR and VicRK/CovR-targets (gbpB, wapE, smaA, SMU.2146c, lysM, epsC) are up-regulated in UA159 during biofilm initiation, in a sucrose-dependent manner. These data support a model in which VicRK and CovR coordinate cell division and surface biogenesis with the extracellular synthesis of polysaccharides, a process apparently required for formation of structurally stable biofilms in the presence of sucrose.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58271. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: 10-Hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid is the most active and unique component to the royal jelly that has antimicrobial properties. Streptococcus mutans is associated with pathogenesis of oral cavity, gingivoperiodontal diseases and bacteremia following dental manipulations. In the oral cavity, S. mutans colonize the soft tissues including tongue, palate, and buccal mucosa. When considering the role of supragingival dental plaque in caries, the proportion of acid producing bacteria (particularly S. mutans), has direct relevance to the pathogenicity of the plaque. The genes that encode glucosyltransferases (gtfs) especially gtfB and gtfC are important in S. mutans colonization and pathogenesis. This study investigated the hydroxy-decenoic acid (HDA) effects on gtfB and gtfC expression and S. mutans adherence to cells surfaces. Methods: Streptococcus mutans was treated by different concentrations of HPLC purified HDA supplied by Iran Beekeeping and Veterinary Association. Real time RT-PCR and western blot assays were conducted to evaluate gtfB and gtfC genes transcription and translation before and after HDA treatment. The bacterial attachment to the cell surfaces was evaluated microscopically. Results: 500 mug ml-1 of HDA inhibited gtfB and gtfC mRNA transcription and its expression. The same concentration of HDA decreased 60% the adherence of S. mutans to the surface of P19 cells. Conclusion: Hydroxy-decenoic acid prevents gtfB and gtfC expression efficiently in the bactericide sub-concentrations and it could effectively reduce S. mutans adherence to the cell surfaces. In the future, therapeutic approaches to affecting S. mutans could be selective and it's not necessary to put down the oral flora completely.Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 07/2012; 11(1):21. · 1.62 Impact Factor