Antidepressant-like action of nicotine in forced swimming test and brain serotonin in mice.
ABSTRACT An antidepressant-like action of nicotine has been suggested in the forced swimming test. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the antidepressant-like action of nicotine and brain serotonin (5-HT) in mice. Nicotine at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the duration of immobility time in forced swimming test. However, nicotine (0.01-1 mg/kg, s.c.) had no effect on locomotor activity in open-field test. Dopamine turnover in mouse whole brain was increased by nicotine (0.01-1 mg/kg, s.c.) in a dose-dependent manner, and nicotine at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg showed a significant increases in 5-HT turnover. Nicotine at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg markedly enhanced head twitch responses induced by (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a selective 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist. These findings suggest that the involvement of nicotinic and serotonergic systems in the antidepressant-like effects of nicotine.
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ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a messenger synthesized in both the neuronal and glial populations by nitric oxide synthase type 1 (NOS1). Nicotine regulates NO production in a sex-dependent manner, both molecules being involved in motor function. The present study evaluates sex differences in motor coordination, general movement, and anxiety-related responses resulting from both constant and continuous nicotine treatment and the genetic depletion of NOS1 activity. Male and female mice were analyzed with the open-field and the rotarod tests. To understand the role of NO, knockout mice for NOS1 (NOS1-/-) were analyzed. Nicotine was administered continuously at a dose of 24 mg/kg/day via osmotic mini-pumps over 14 days because the behavioral effects elicited are similar to those observed with discontinuous administration. Data analyses revealed noteworthy sex differences derived from NOS1 depletion. Control NOS1-/- males exhibited an exacerbated anxiety-related response in relation to control NOS1-/- females and control wild-type (WT) males; these differences disappeared in the nicotine-administered NOS1-/- males. Additionally, nicotine administration differentially affected the horizontal movements of NOS1-/- females with respect to WT animals. NO depletion affected male but not female motor coordination improvement along the test days. However, the drug affected female motor coordination only at the end of the administration period. We show for the first time that NO affects motor and anxiety behaviors in a sex-dependent manner. Moreover, the behavioral effects of constant nicotine administration are dimorphic and dependent on NO production.Psychopharmacology 10/2013; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Depression and use of addictive substances are two of the most frequent public health problems of adolescents. However, little is known about the association between depression and drug use. Considering that ethanol and nicotine are the most widely used and abused drugs by adolescents, here, we evaluated the depressive-like behavior of C57BL/6 male and female mice exposed to nicotine (NIC) and/or ethanol (ETOH) from the 30th to the 45th (PN30-45) postnatal day. Four groups were analyzed: 1) concomitant NIC (50μg/ml in 2% saccharin to drink) and ETOH (25%, 2g/kg i.p. injected every other day) exposure; 2) NIC exposure; 3) ETOH exposure; 4) vehicle. Immobile behavior, an animal model of depressive behavior, was assessed in the forced swimming test (FST) while the anhedonic state was assessed in the sucrose preference test (SPT) by the end of exposure (PN45-47) as well as during short- (PN50-52) and long-term (PN75-77) withdrawal. In the FST, ETOH female mice showed a reduction in immobility time by the end of exposure while, during long-term withdrawal, immobility time was increased. Short-term withdrawal elicited an increase in immobility time only in female NIC mice. In the SPT, males from both NIC and NIC+ETOH groups showed increased sucrose consumption, suggesting a reward-craving effect during short-term withdrawal. During long-term withdrawal, NIC male mice showed an anhedonic effect. Adolescent nicotine, ethanol and nicotine+ethanol combined exposures during adolescence thus elicit gender-selective effects both during exposure and withdrawal that may contribute to the increased prevalence of depression among drug users.Behavioural brain research 03/2011; 221(1):282-9. · 3.22 Impact Factor
- European Neuropsychopharmacology - EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL. 01/2011; 21.