Antidepressant-like action of nicotine in forced swimming test and brain serotonin in mice.
ABSTRACT An antidepressant-like action of nicotine has been suggested in the forced swimming test. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the antidepressant-like action of nicotine and brain serotonin (5-HT) in mice. Nicotine at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the duration of immobility time in forced swimming test. However, nicotine (0.01-1 mg/kg, s.c.) had no effect on locomotor activity in open-field test. Dopamine turnover in mouse whole brain was increased by nicotine (0.01-1 mg/kg, s.c.) in a dose-dependent manner, and nicotine at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg showed a significant increases in 5-HT turnover. Nicotine at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg markedly enhanced head twitch responses induced by (+/-)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI), a selective 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist. These findings suggest that the involvement of nicotinic and serotonergic systems in the antidepressant-like effects of nicotine.
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ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) is a messenger synthesized in both the neuronal and glial populations by nitric oxide synthase type 1 (NOS1). Nicotine regulates NO production in a sex-dependent manner, both molecules being involved in motor function. The present study evaluates sex differences in motor coordination, general movement, and anxiety-related responses resulting from both constant and continuous nicotine treatment and the genetic depletion of NOS1 activity. Male and female mice were analyzed with the open-field and the rotarod tests. To understand the role of NO, knockout mice for NOS1 (NOS1-/-) were analyzed. Nicotine was administered continuously at a dose of 24 mg/kg/day via osmotic mini-pumps over 14 days because the behavioral effects elicited are similar to those observed with discontinuous administration. Data analyses revealed noteworthy sex differences derived from NOS1 depletion. Control NOS1-/- males exhibited an exacerbated anxiety-related response in relation to control NOS1-/- females and control wild-type (WT) males; these differences disappeared in the nicotine-administered NOS1-/- males. Additionally, nicotine administration differentially affected the horizontal movements of NOS1-/- females with respect to WT animals. NO depletion affected male but not female motor coordination improvement along the test days. However, the drug affected female motor coordination only at the end of the administration period. We show for the first time that NO affects motor and anxiety behaviors in a sex-dependent manner. Moreover, the behavioral effects of constant nicotine administration are dimorphic and dependent on NO production.Psychopharmacology 10/2013; 231(4). DOI:10.1007/s00213-013-3284-5 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is a strong link between tobacco consumption and mood disorders. It has been suggested that afflicted individuals smoke to manage mood, however, there is evidence indicating that tobacco consumption can induce negative mood. This study was designed to investigate whether nicotine exposure during adolescence influences emotionality/behavioral functioning later in life. Adolescent (postnatal days, PD 30-44) male rats were treated with twice-daily injections of nicotine (0, 0.16, 0.32, or 0.64 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days, and their behavioral reactivity to various behavioral paradigms (the elevated plus maze (EPM), sucrose preference, locomotor activity in the open field, and forced swim test (FST) was assessed 24 h (short term) or 1-month (long term) after exposure. Separate groups of adult rats received nicotine (0.32 mg/kg) to control for age-dependent effects. We report that nicotine exposure during adolescence-but not adulthood-leads to a depression-like state manifested in decreased sensitivity to natural reward (sucrose), and enhanced sensitivity to stress- (FST) and anxiety-eliciting situations (EPM) later in life. Our data show that behavioral dysregulation can emerge 1 week after drug cessation, and that a single day of nicotine exposure during adolescence can be sufficient to precipitate a depression-like state in adulthood. We further demonstrate that these deficits can be normalized by subsequent nicotine (0.32 mg/kg) or antidepressant (ie fluoxetine or bupropion; 10 mg/kg) treatment in adulthood. These data suggest that adolescent exposure to nicotine results in a negative emotional state rendering the organism significantly more vulnerable to the adverse effects of stress. Within this context, our findings, together with others indicating that nicotine exposure during adolescence enhances risk for addiction later in life, could serve as a potential model of comorbidity.Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology 05/2009; 34(6):1609-24. DOI:10.1038/npp.2008.220 · 7.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been shown that the steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) interacts with dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems, which are involved in the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric diseases such as Parkinson's disease as well as mood and psychotic disorders. To explore if DHEA modulates DA and 5-HT metabolism we analyzed the content of both neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the rat corpus striatum (CS) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) 2 h after steroid administration (30, 60 and 120 mg/kg i.p.). DHEA treatment significantly reduced DA turnover (up to 33%) in the CS, but increased 5-HT turnover (up to 76%) in both regions. Those effects could be relevant to mood and neurodegenerative disorders.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 07/2008; 32(6):1584-9. DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2008.06.002 · 4.03 Impact Factor