Prevention of cognitive impairments and neurodegeneration by Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala.
ABSTRACT Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala (KAHAW) is an effective and potent cardiac tonic with well-known antioxidant properties. The extensive use of this preparation in Indian system of Unani medicine led us to hypothesize that the pretreatment of this drug to male Wistar rats would prevent cognitive and neurobehavioral impairments. The cognitive impairment was developed by giving single intracerebroventricular injection of 1.5 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ) bilaterally. An increased latency and path length was observed in cognitive, i.e. STZ group as compared to sham group and these were restored significantly in STZ group pretreated with KAHAW (700 mg/kg body weight for 15 days). The activity of antioxidant enzymes, viz. glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase was decreased in STZ group as compared to sham group and pretreatment of STZ group with KAHAW has protected their activities significantly. Moreover, the significantly depleted content of reduced glutathione and significantly elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in STZ group were protected significantly with KAHAW. The study concludes that the therapeutic intervention of KAHAW may be used to prevent or to decrease the deterioration of cognitive function and neurobehavioral activities, often associated with the generation of free radicals.
- SourceAvailable from: jbc.orgJournal of Biological Chemistry 12/1974; 249(22):7130-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuroinflammation is a characteristic of pathologically affected tissue in several neurodegenerative disorders. These changes are particularly observed in affected brain areas of Alzheimer's disease (AD) cases. They include an accumulation of large numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes as well as small numbers of T-cells, mostly adhering to postcapillary venules. Accompanying biochemical alterations include the appearance or up-regulation of numerous molecules characteristic of inflammation and free radical attack. Particularly important may be the complement proteins, acute phase reactants and inflammatory cytokines. These brain phenomena combined with epidemiological evidence of a protective effect of antiinflammatory agents suggest that such agents may have a role to play in treating the disease.Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 09/2003; 27(5):741-9. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ICV injections of streptozotocin (STREP) lower the glucose utilization of the brain and affect the cholinergic system. The present study was designed to evaluate whether STREP-treated rats have an impaired spatial discrimination performance in the Morris spatial navigation task. Performance in this task is sensitive to treatment with cholinergic antagonists. In contrast to young rats, middle-aged STREP-treated rats tended to have an impaired spatial discrimination performance in the Morris task at the end of training. In middle-aged STREP-treated rats, but not in control rats, spatial discrimination performance was associated with hippocampal choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity. The correlation between spatial discrimination performance in the Morris task and the decrease in hippocampal ChAT activity resembles the relation between cognitive and biochemical changes observed in Alzheimer's disease. Our findings suggest that STREP treatment of middle-aged rats may provide a relevant model for dementia.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 03/1993; 44(2):491-4. · 2.61 Impact Factor