RUNX3 protein is overexpressed in human basal cell carcinomas.
ABSTRACT Basal cell carcinomas (BCC), which are the most common form of skin malignancy, are invariably associated with the deregulation of the Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signalling pathway. As such, BCC represent a unique model for the study of interactions of the Shh pathway with other genes and pathways. We constructed a tissue microarray (TMA) of 75 paired BCC and normal skin and analysed the expression of beta-catenin and RUNX3, nuclear effectors of the wingless-Int (Wnt) and bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-beta pathways, respectively. In line with previous reports, we observed varying subcellular expression pattern of beta-catenin in BCC, with 31 cases (41%) showing nuclear accumulation. In contrast, all the BCC cases tested by the TMA showed RUNX3 protein uniformly overexpressed in the nuclei of the cancer cells. Analysis by Western blotting and DNA sequencing indicates that the overexpressed protein is normal and full-length, containing no mutation in the coding region, implicating RUNX3 as an oncogene in certain human cancers. Our results indicate that although the deregulation of Wnt signalling could contribute to the pathogenesis of a subset of BCC, RUNX3 appears to be a universal downstream mediator of a constitutively active Shh pathway in BCC.
- SourceAvailable from: Ming Teh[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Loss of RUNX3 expression is suggested to be causally related to gastric cancer as 45% to 60% of gastric cancers do not express RUNX3 mainly due to hypermethylation of the RUNX3 promoter. Here, we examined for other defects in the properties of RUNX3 in gastric cancers that express RUNX3. Ninety-seven gastric cancer tumor specimens and 21 gastric cancer cell lines were examined by immunohistochemistry using novel anti-RUNX3 monoclonal antibodies. In normal gastric mucosa, RUNX3 was expressed most strongly in the nuclei of chief cells as well as in surface epithelial cells. In chief cells, a significant portion of the protein was also found in the cytoplasm. RUNX3 was not detectable in 43 of 97 (44%) cases of gastric cancers tested and a further 38% showed exclusive cytoplasmic localization, whereas only 18% showed nuclear localization. Evidence is presented suggesting that transforming growth factor-beta is an inducer of nuclear translocation of RUNX3, and RUNX3 in the cytoplasm of cancer cells is inactive as a tumor suppressor. RUNX3 was found to be inactive in 82% of gastric cancers through either gene silencing or protein mislocalization to the cytoplasm. In addition to the deregulation of mechanisms controlling gene expression, there would also seem to be at least one other mechanism controlling nuclear translocation of RUNX3 that is impaired frequently in gastric cancer.Cancer Research 10/2005; 65(17):7743-50. · 8.65 Impact Factor
- Oncogene 06/2004; 23(24):4209-10. · 7.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Runx genes present a challenge to the simple binary classification of cancer genes as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. There is evidence that loss of function of two of the three mammalian Runx genes promotes cancer, but in a highly lineage-restricted manner. In human leukemias, the RUNX1 gene is involved in various chromosomal translocation events that create oncogenic fusion proteins, at least some of which appear to function as dominant-negative inhibitors of the normal gene product. Paradoxically, evidence is mounting that structurally intact Runx genes are also oncogenic when overexpressed. All the three murine genes act as targets for transcriptional activation by retroviral insertional mutagenesis, and the oncogenic potential of Runx2 has been confirmed in transgenic mice. Moreover, the RUNX1 gene is often amplified or overexpressed in cases of acute leukemia. The state of progress in elucidating the oncogenic roles of the Runx genes is the subject of this review, and we draw together recent observations in a tentative model for the effects of Runx deregulation on hematopoietic cell differentiation. We suggest that lineage-specific factors determine the sensitivity to the oncogenic effects of loss or overexpression of Runx factors.Oncogene 06/2004; 23(24):4308-14. · 7.36 Impact Factor