Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory skin disease which usually starts during the first years of life. In the management of AD, the correct approach requires a combination of multiple treatments to identify and eliminate trigger factors, and to improve the alteration of the skin barrier. In this article we try to explain the importance of skin care in the management of AD in relation to the use of textiles: they may be useful to improve disrupted skin but they are also a possible cause of triggering or worsening the lesions. Garments are in direct contact with the skin all day long, and for this reason it is important to carefully choose suitable fabrics in atopic subjects who have disrupted skin. Owing to their hygienic properties fabrics produced from natural fibres are preferential. Wool fibres are frequently used in human clothes but are irritant in direct contact with the skin. Wool fibre has frequently been shown to be irritant to the skin of atopic patients, and for this reason wool intolerance was included as a minor criterion in the diagnostic criteria of AD by Hanifin and Rajka in 1980. Cotton is the most commonly used textile for patients with AD; it has wide acceptability as clothing material because of its natural abundance and inherent properties like good folding endurance, better conduction of heat, easy dyeability and excellent moisture absorption. Silk fabrics help to maintain the body temperature by reducing the excessive sweating and moisture loss that can worsen xerosis. However, the type of silk fabric generally used for clothes is not particularly useful in the care and dressing of children with AD since it reduces transpiration and may cause discomfort when in direct contact with the skin. A new type of silk fabric made of transpiring and slightly elastic woven silk is now commercially available (Microair Dermasilk) and may be used for the skin care of children with AD. The presence of increased bacterial colonization has been demonstrated in patients with AD. Such colonization has been included in the group of trigger factors for eczema in AD. Silver products have recently been demonstrated to offer two advantages in the control of bacterial infections. Textiles may be used not only for clothes, but also to prevent dust mite sensitization in atopic patients. A marked clinical improvement of AD was observed in a group of adults and children with positive skin tests (not necessarily towards mites), after an intensive eradication programme for mite allergens. Skin treatment with acaricide and house dust mite control measures can decrease AD symptoms. Different textiles have various potential worsening links with allergies: e.g. clothing has been proposed as an additional source of exposure to mite and cat allergens. On the other hand, special textiles can be used to prevent dust mite sensitization.
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"PA has been used for a number of industrial, apparel and medical applications, such as wound sutures, artificial tendons and medical packaging, due to its excellent wear resistance, strength, toughness, elastic recovery, low initial modulus, appearance retention, ease of coloration and high resistance to rupture (Mcintyre, 2005). CO is the natural fibre most commonly used by humans with skin diseases, such as contact dermatitis and has good folding endurance, good head conduction, good dyeability and excellent moisture absorption (Hipler and Elsner, 2006; Ricci et al., 2006). Antioxidants are natural resources that are used to regulate the processes related to external aggression, preventing oxidative stress in human beings. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract The aim of this study was to demonstrate the skin penetration of an antioxidant, gallic acid (GA), encapsulated in poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) microspheres and applied onto textile fabrics, by a specific in vitro percutaneous absorption methodology. Two techniques (particle size distribution and FTIR) were used to characterise the microspheres obtained. The amount of GA-loaded microspheres present in the biofunctional textiles was established before their use as a textile drug delivery system. More absorption and desorption of microspheres with GA for the polyamide fabric were found in comparison with cotton fabric. The percutaneous absorption results indicated that the skin penetration of GA released from PCL-microspheres that were applied directly to the skin was higher than when GA was embedded within biofunctional textiles, in conclusion, an interesting reservoir effect may be promoted when biofunctional textiles were used.
Journal of Microencapsulation 04/2014; 31(6). DOI:10.3109/02652048.2014.885605 · 1.59 Impact Factor
"The clinical efficacy of adding an antimicrobial effect to fabrics in the treatment of atopic dermatitis patients has been investigated by many research groups   . Gauger et al.  also used a side-to-side comparative trial by comparing the treatment with silver-coated textiles on one arm to that of cotton on the other arm for 7 days followed by 7 days without the treatment in 15 patients with generalized or localized atopic dermatitis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The progressive public use of antimicrobial clothes has raised issues concerning skin health. A placebo-controlled side-to-side study was run with antimicrobial clothes versus fabrics of similar structure but minus the antimicrobial activity, to evaluate possible adverse effects on the healthy skin microflora. Sixty volunteers were enrolled. Each participant received a set of form-fitting T-shirts constructed in 2 halves: an antibacterial half, displaying activities of 3-5 log-step reductions due to silver-finishes or silver-loaded fibres and a nonantibacterial control side. The microflora of the scapular skin was analyzed weekly for opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms over six weeks. The antibacterial halves did not disturb the microflora in number or composition, whereas a silver-containing deodorant displayed a short-term disturbance. Furthermore, parameters of skin morphology and function (TEWL, pH, moisture) did not show any significant shifts. In summary, antimicrobial clothes did not show adverse effects on the ecological balance of the healthy skin microflora.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis is an especially common and frustrating condition, and the prevalence is increasing. The disease can adversely affect the quality of life of patients and caregivers. Significant advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis have led to improvements in therapy. Patient and caregiver education, avoidance of potential triggering factors, optimal skin care, and pharmacotherapy offer the potential for good control for most patients.
Advances in Pediatrics 02/2007; 54(1):241-73. DOI:10.1016/j.yapd.2007.03.013