Article

Jekyll encodes a novel protein involved in the sexual reproduction of barley.

Leibniz-Institut für Pflanzengenetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung, D-06466 Gatersleben, Germany.
The Plant Cell (Impact Factor: 9.25). 08/2006; 18(7):1652-66. DOI: 10.1105/tpc.106.041335
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cereal seed development depends on the intimate interaction of filial and maternal tissues, ensuring nourishment of the new generation. The gene jekyll, which was identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare), is preferentially expressed in the nurse tissues. JEKYLL shares partial similarity with the scorpion Cn4 toxin and is toxic when ectopically expressed in Escherichia coli and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). In barley, jekyll is upregulated in cells destined for autolysis. The gene generates a gradient of expression in the nucellar projection, which mediates the maternal-filial interaction during seed filling. Downregulation of jekyll by the RNA interference technique in barley decelerates autolysis and cell differentiation within the nurse tissues. Flower development and seed filling are thereby extended, and the nucellar projection no longer functions as the main transport route for assimilates. A slowing down in the proliferation of endosperm nuclei and a severely impaired ability to accumulate starch in the endosperm leads to the formation of irregular and small-sized seeds at maturity. Overall, JEKYLL plays a decisive role in the differentiation of the nucellar projection and drives the programmed cell death necessary for its proper function. We further suggest that cell autolysis during the differentiation of the nucellar projection allows the optimal provision of basic nutrients for biosynthesis in endosperm and embryo.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
112 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases have been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming.
    Biotechnology advances 09/2013; · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Grain development of the maternal effect shrunken endosperm mutant seg8 was analysed by comprehensive molecular, biochemical and histological methods. The most obvious finding was de-regulation of ABA levels, which were lower compared to wild-type during the pre-storage phase but higher during the transition from cell division/differentiation to accumulation of storage products. Ploidy levels and ABA amounts were inversely correlated in the developing endosperms of both mutant and wild-type, suggesting an influence of ABA on cell-cycle regulation. The low ABA levels found in seg8 grains between anthesis and beginning endosperm cellularization may result from a gene dosage effect in the syncytial endosperm that causes impaired transfer of ABA synthesized in vegetative tissues into filial grain parts. Increased ABA levels during the transition phase are accompanied by higher chlorophyll and carotenoid/xanthophyll contents. The data suggest a disturbed ABA-releasing biosynthetic pathway. This is indicated by up-regulation of expression of the geranylgeranyl reductase (GGR) gene, which may be induced by ABA deficiency during the pre-storage phase. Abnormal cellularization/differentiation of the developing seg8 endosperm and reduced accumulation of starch are phenotypic characteristics that reflect these disturbances. The present study did not reveal the primary gene defect causing the seg8 phenotype, but presents new insights into the maternal/filial relationships regulating barley endosperm development.
    The Plant Journal 11/2010; 64(4):589-603. · 6.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Seeds develop differently in dicots and monocots, especially with respect to the major storage organs. High-resolution transcriptome data have provided the first insights into the molecular networks and pathway interactions that function during the development of individual seed compartments. Here, we review mainly recent data obtained by systems biology-based approaches, which have allowed researchers to construct and model complex metabolic networks and fluxes and identify key limiting steps in seed development. Comparative coexpression network analyses define evolutionarily conservative (FUS3/ABI3/LEC1) and divergent (LEC2) networks in dicots and monocots. Finally, we discuss the determination of seed size-an important yield-related characteristic-as mediated by a number of processes (maternal and epigenetic factors, fine-tuned regulation of cell death in distinct seed compartments, and endosperm growth) and underlying genes defined through mutant analyses. Altogether, systems approaches can make important contributions toward a more complete and holistic knowledge of seed biology and thus support strategies for knowledge-based molecular breeding. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology Volume 64 is April 29, 2013. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Plant Biology 02/2013; · 18.71 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
37 Downloads
Available from
Jun 5, 2014