A systematic review of the effects of calcium supplementation on body weight

Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK.
British Journal Of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.34). 07/2006; 95(6):1033-8. DOI: 10.1079/BJN20051727
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Animal studies and epidemiological studies have suggested that Ca supplementation (with Ca supplements or dairy products) may be associated with weight loss in human adults. We aimed to assess whether any association was present by reviewing relevant randomized controlled trials in human subjects. The study was a systematic review and subsequent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that used Ca supplementation as an intervention in persons 18 or more years of age, and that reported body weight as a final outcome. A total of thirteen randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. There was no association between the increased consumption of either Ca supplements or dairy products and weight loss after adjusting for differences in baseline weights between the control and intervention groups (P=0.19 and 0.85, respectively). We therefore concluded that Ca supplementation has no statistically significant association with a reduction in body weight.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The elevated prevalence of obesity worldwide is a challenging public health problem. Dietary calcium intake is frequently below recommendations, and evidence gathered for more than a decade suggests that inadequate calcium intake may be related to increased body weight and/or body fat, although a consensus has yet to be reached. Whole-body energy balance and the cellular mechanisms involved have been proposed to explain this relationship, and increasing evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and basic research lends support to the hypothesis that calcium is linked to the regulation of body weight. This review provides a critical appraisal of evidence from studies that examined several different aspects of this issue. Different mechanisms are highlighted and, based on recent work, new perspectives are offered, which incorporate the concept of obesity-associated inflammation and the possible role of the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor.
    Nutrition Reviews 09/2014; 72(10). DOI:10.1111/nure.12135 · 5.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An unknown number of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have their treatment allocation subverted. If such trials are included in systematic reviews, biased results may be used to change policy. To assess whether a systematic review contains subverted trials, a meta-analysis of group differences regarding a baseline variable can be undertaken. In this article, the performance of age with another prognostic variable in detecting selection bias within systematic reviews is compared. Two Cochrane systematic reviews, one of low back pain and one of hip protectors for fracture prevention, were identified. The component RCT texts were obtained, and data were extracted on age, baseline back pain score (low back pain review), and baseline body mass (hip protector review). In this exemplar, we tested for baseline heterogeneity with a fixed-effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity in age between the intervention and control groups was found. The observed heterogeneity increased with baseline back pain and body mass relative to age in each review. We found that covariates predictive of outcome demonstrate greater heterogeneity than age. However, there were fewer missing data relating to age. Reviewers should consider using age and another prognostic covariate in baseline meta-analyses to check the validity of their results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 11/2014; 68(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jclinepi.2014.09.023 · 5.48 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 17, 2014