Polymyositis-dermatomyositis and infections.
ABSTRACT In genetically predisposed individuals, viruses, bacteria, or parasitic infectious agents are suspected to induce autoimmunity and/or to exacerbate the disease once the self-tolerance is broken. Although direct evidence for this association is still lacking, numerous data from animal models as well as from humans support the hypothesis of a direct contribution of pathogens to the induction of several autoimmune diseases. This review focused on the possible role of infectious agents as triggers of autoimmunity in polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). Epidemiological studies, clinical and experimental findings that support the hypothesis of infection-induced PM and DM are summarized and discussed. In addition, immune response abnormalities and immunosuppressive medications may be responsible for the high percentage of infectious complications in PM and DM patients. In this review, the increased risk of developing infections in these patients is also underlined and published data are reported.
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ABSTRACT: Myositis specific autoantibodies are associated with unique clinical subsets and are useful biomarkers in polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM). A 120 kD protein recognized by certain patients with DM was identified and clinical features of patients with this specificity were characterized. The 120 kD protein recognized by a prototype serum was purified and identified by mass spectrometry and immunological methods. Autoantibody to this 120 kD protein was screened in sera from 2,356 patients with various diagnoses from four countries, including 254 PM/DM, by immunoprecipitation of 35S-methionine labeled K562 cell extracts. Clinical information of patients with this specificity was collected. The 120 kD protein, which exactly comigrated with PL-12, was identified as transcription intermediary factor TIF1β (TRIM28) by mass spectrometry and validated by immunoassays. By immunofluorescence, anti-TIF1β positivity showed a fine-speckled nuclear staining pattern. Four cases of anti-TIF1β were identified; all are women, one each in a Japanese, African American, Caucasian, and Mexican individual. Three had a diagnosis of DM and one case was classified as having an undifferentiated connective tissue disease with an elevated CPK but without significant muscle symptoms. This individual also had a history of colon cancer, cervical squamous metaplasia and fibroid tumors of the uterus. Myopathy was mild in all cases and resolved without treatment in one case. The anti-TIF1β specificity was not found in other conditions. Anti-TIF1β is a new DM autoantibody associated with a mild form of myopathy. Whether it has an association with malignancy, as in the case of anti-TIF1γ, or other unique features will need to be evaluated in future studies.Arthritis research & therapy 04/2012; 14(2):R79. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Polymyositis is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease and various systemic infections can trigger it. However, there have been only rare reports of recurrent polymyositis triggered by systemic infections. We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with recurrent polymyositis triggered by bronchiectasis-associated infections. This case indicates that recurrent polymyositis triggered by systemic infections suggests a non-specific autoimmune antigenic response of polymyositis.International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases 10/2012; 15(5):e109-12. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, there have been important advances in the understanding of the pathophysiologic features, assessment, and management of patients with a newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). Myositis-specific autoantibodies have been identified to define patient subgroups and offer prognostic implications. Similarly, proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6 and type 1 interferon-dependent genes, may serve as potential biomarkers of disease activity in adult and juvenile patients with dermatomyositis (DM). Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging has become an important modality for the assessment of muscle inflammation in adult IIM and juvenile DM. Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies also are being recognized as a subset of IIM triggered by medications such as statins. However, confusion exists regarding effective management strategies for patients with IIM because of the lack of large-scale, randomized, controlled studies. This review focuses primarily on our current management and treatment algorithms for IIM including the care of pediatric patients with juvenile DM. For this review, we conducted a search of PubMed and MEDLINE for articles published from January 1, 1970, to December 1, 2011, using the following search terms: idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, juvenile dermatomyositis, sporadic inclusion body myositis, inclusion body myositis, inflammatory myositis, myositis, myopathies, pathogenesis, therapy, and treatment. Studies published in English were selected for inclusion in our review as well as additional articles identified from bibliographies.Mayo Clinic Proceedings 01/2013; 88(1):83-105. · 5.79 Impact Factor