Polymyositis-dermatomyositis and infections.
ABSTRACT In genetically predisposed individuals, viruses, bacteria, or parasitic infectious agents are suspected to induce autoimmunity and/or to exacerbate the disease once the self-tolerance is broken. Although direct evidence for this association is still lacking, numerous data from animal models as well as from humans support the hypothesis of a direct contribution of pathogens to the induction of several autoimmune diseases. This review focused on the possible role of infectious agents as triggers of autoimmunity in polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM). Epidemiological studies, clinical and experimental findings that support the hypothesis of infection-induced PM and DM are summarized and discussed. In addition, immune response abnormalities and immunosuppressive medications may be responsible for the high percentage of infectious complications in PM and DM patients. In this review, the increased risk of developing infections in these patients is also underlined and published data are reported.
- Presse Medicale. 01/2009; 38(2):303-316.
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ABSTRACT: Autophagy has a large range of physiological functions and its dysregulation contributes to several human disorders, including autoinflammatory/autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory myopathies (IIMs). In order to better understand the pathogenetic mechanisms of these muscular disorders, we sought to define the role of autophagic processes and their relation with the innate immune system in the three main subtypes of IIM, specifically sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM), polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). We found that although the mRNA transcript levels of the autophagy-related genes BECN1, ATG5 and FBXO32 were similar in IIM and controls, autophagy activation in all IIM subgroups was suggested by immunoblotting results and confirmed by immunofluorescence. TLR4 and TLR3, two potent inducers of autophagy, were highly increased in IIM, with TLR4 transcripts significantly more expressed in PM and DM than in JDM, sIBM and controls, and TLR3 transcripts highly up-regulated in all IIM subgroups compared to controls. Co-localization between autophagic marker, LC3, and TLR4 and TLR3 was observed not only in sIBM but also in PM, DM and JDM muscle tissues. Furthermore, a highly association with the autophagic processes was observed in all IIM subgroups also for some TLR4 ligands, endogenous and bacterial HSP60, other than the high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). These findings indicate that autophagic processes are active not only in sIBM but also in PM, DM and JDM, probably in response to an exogenous or endogenous 'danger signal'. However, autophagic activation and regulation, and also interaction with the innate immune system, differ in each type of IIM. Better understanding of these differences may lead to new therapies for the different IIM types.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e111490. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose Individuals with systemic autoimmune disease have an increased susceptibility to both inflammation and malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with systemic autoimmune disease. Methods Forty patients diagnosed with systemic autoimmune disease were enrolled. Diagnostic accuracy of FDG PET/CT for detecting malignancy was assessed. FDG PET/CT findings, including maximum standardized uptake (SUVmax) of lymphadenopathy (LAP), liver, bone marrow, spleen, joint and muscles, were considered for the characterization of LAPs. Results FDG PET/CT could detect metabolically activated lesions in 36 out of 40 patients (90%) including inflammatory lesions in 28 out of 32 patients (88%). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of FDG PET/CT for the detection of malignancy were 100, 67, 70, 25, and 100%, respectively. Multiple LAPs were found in 25 of 40 patients (63%), and comprised three malignancies, four cases of tuberculosis, and 18 reactive changes. A SUVmax ratio of bone marrow to liver below 0.78 could distinguish malignancy from tuberculosis + reactive change (AUC = 1.000, sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 100%). The SUVmax ratio of spleen to liver in the reactive group was also significantly higher than that in the malignancy group (P = 0.014). SUVmax of LAP in the TB group was significantly higher than that in the reactive group (P = 0.040). Conclusions PET/CT is useful in detecting and differentiating inflammation and malignancy in patients with systemic autoimmune disease. Frequent false-positive interpretations can be minimized by consideration of FDG uptake in bone marrow and spleen.Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. 01/2011; 45(3):177-184.