Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
"Seed oils are mainly composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely oleic and linoleic acids (Radovich et al 2010; Kirbaslar et al 2012) with the latter accounting for more than half of the seed's fatty acid content (Kim et al 2012). Its seeds also contain vitamins A, C and E (Raganathan et al 2013), calcium, iron, phosphorous and zinc, and cucurbitacins (Khare 2007; Glew et al 2006). Amino acids detected in significant amounts were glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, glycine, valine, among others (Kim et al 2012). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effects of replacing fishmeal with squash (Cucurbita maxima) seed meal (SSM) on Oreochromis niloticus juveniles were investigated on a 30-day feeding trial. Triplicate groups of ten (10) O. niloticus juveniles (2.54±0.949 g) stocked in polyethylene tanks received iso-nitrogenous diets with SSM inclusion levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. Fish fed 5% SSM inclusion level showed the highest average weight gain (202.25±36.26%) and specific growth rate (3.76±0.42%) among the fish fed SSM-containing diets. However, there were no significant differences between the average weight gain and specific growth rate of fish in all diets. Fish fed S5, S15 and S20 showed significantly higher protein carcass levels; lipid levels were not significantly different while hepatosomatic index in fish fed S20 was significantly higher than fish fed other diets. Cost analysis of diets revealed S5 as the most costeffective diet. SSM diets were comparable to the positive control diet as these were efficiently utilized by the fish, thereby making it a potential candidate ingredient/replacement for fishmeal.
"Concerning amino acids composition, tiger nut is rich in glutamic acid, methionine, arginine and aspartic acid. Its mineral composition revealed high amounts of potassium, phosphorous, sodium, calcium, and magnesium (Ekcanyanwu and Ononogbu, 2010; Glew et al., 2006; Oladele and Aina, 2007). According to Chukwuma et al. (2010), several groups of phytochemicals are present in tiger nut, with marked differences between raw and roasted ones. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present study the chemical composition of Cyperus esculentus L. (tiger nut) from four distinct geographical origin (Spain, Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa) was assessed to observe the possible effect of the cultivation site in the fatty acids profile, sterols composition, and squalene and �-tocopherol content. It was verified that the individual fatty acids as well as the different fatty acids fractions were severely affected by the geographical origin. Tiger nut oils were predominantly monounsaturated with lower prevalence of saturated fatty acids, and with capability to provide appreciable amounts of essential fatty acids. The sterols fraction was affected as well, but in lower extent. �-sitosterol was the most abundant sterol found, reaching nearly 60% of the total sterols found in tiger nut oils, with significant differences among geographical origins.The fatty acids data, together with the sterols and �-tocopherol and squalene data were capable to separate tiger nut samples according to their chemical composition and geographical origin when a principal component analysis was applied. The fatty acids profile could be applied as a possible geographical authenticity marker.
"High glycine (400 mg/100 g) and leucine (1.2 g/100 g) contents were reported in millet by Kalinova and Moudry (2006). Amino acid composition of defatted pumpkin seeds was analyzed by Glew et al. (2006) who found that the seed flour possessed lower lysine and threonine contents as compared to the recommended standards for children (FAO/WHO, 1985). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical, amino acid and fatty acid compositions of Sterculia urens seeds are reported. The cotyledons were found to be rich in protein (30.88%) and lipids (39.2%). The major amino acids in defatted Sterculia urens cotyledon flour (DSCF) were determined as glutamic acid, arginine and aspartic acid. Cysteine, methionine, tyrosine and histidine were observed in minor quantities. The ratio of essential to non-essential amino acids was observed to be 0.45. Among the essential amino acids, isoleucine was found to be higher than the reported FAO/WHO requirements. The GC-FID and GC–MS analysis revealed that the major fatty acids of the total lipid were stearic acid (31.72%), linoleic acid (28.83%) and palmitic acid (26.79%). Eicosadienoic acid (4.98%) and eicosatrienoic acid (2.96%) were also found in the total lipid.
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