Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger.
ABSTRACT Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids. On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.
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ABSTRACT: Including crude fat content, triacylglycerol species, tocopherols and phytosterols were analyzed in 8 kinds of nuts (sunflower seed, cashew nut, walnut, pistachio, pumpkin seed, ginkgo, hazel nut and pecan). The extracted crude fats showed 0.63~39.60 wt%, among which hazel nut showed the highest amount of fat content. Oleic acid (C18:1) was major fatty acids at sn-2 position in cashew nut, pistachio, hazel nut, and pecan while sunflower seed, walnut, and pumpkin seed showed linoleic acid (C18:2) as a major fatty acids at sn-2 position. Especially, ginkgo contained 10.72 wt% of vaccenic acid (C18:1-n7) at sn-2 position. The TAG species of 8 kinds of nuts were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC, from which PN value ranged 40~52. Among the analyzed nuts, higher content of tocopherols were observed in ginkgo (48.57 mg/100 g), sunflower seed (38.35 mg/100 g), and pumpkin seed(31.43 mg/100 g). Total phytosterols were observed with the range of 88.60~947.20 mg/100 g.Korean Journal of Food Preservation. 01/2010; 17(3).
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant effects of pumpkin leaf extracted using a 50% ethanol on ground pork during storage. The pumpkin leaf extracts were added at concentrations of 0.05 (PE-0.05), 0.1 (PE-0.1), and 0.2% (PE-0.2) to ground pork, and 0.05% of ascorbic acid (As-0.05) was added as a control. Each sample was collected after 1, 4, 7, and 10 d of storage and the pH, total viable counts (TVC), conjugated dienes (CD), free fatty acids (FFA), and thiobarbituric reaction substance (TBARS) values were measured. The pH of the pork samples decreased until day 7, and then increased thereafter, except for the control and PE-0.05 sample. Lower CIE values were observed for pork samples containing PE relative to As-0.05 at increasing storage time (pHangug chugsan sigpum haghoeji = Korean journal for food science of animal resources 01/2011; 31(6). · 0.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hominins are generally considered eclectic omnivores like baboons, but recent isotope studies call into question the generalist status of some hominins. Paranthropus boisei and Australopithecus bahrelghazali derived 75%-80% of their tissues' δ(13)C from C4 sources, i.e. mainly low-quality foods like grasses and sedges. Here I consider the energetics of P. boisei and the nutritional value of C4 foods, taking into account scaling issues between the volume of food consumed and body mass, and P. boisei's food preference as inferred from dento-cranial morphology. Underlying the models are empirical data for Papio cynocephalus dietary ecology. Paranthropus boisei only needed to spend some 37%-42% of its daily feeding time (conservative estimate) on C4 sources to meet 80% of its daily requirements of calories, and all its requirements for protein. The energetic requirements of 2-4 times the basal metabolic rate (BMR) common to mammals could therefore have been met within a 6-hour feeding/foraging day. The findings highlight the high nutritional yield of many C4 foods eaten by baboons (and presumably hominins), explain the evolutionary success of P. boisei, and indicate that P. boisei was probably a generalist like other hominins. The diet proposed is consistent with the species' derived morphology and unique microwear textures. Finally, the results highlight the importance of baboon/hominin hand in food acquisition and preparation.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84942. · 3.53 Impact Factor