Article

Optical imaging of experimental arthritis using allogeneic leukocytes labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent probe

The Department of Radiology, S-372, UCSF Medical Center, University of California in San Francisco, 513 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA.
European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging (Impact Factor: 5.22). 09/2006; 33(9):998-1006. DOI: 10.1007/s00259-006-0081-y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of inflammation detection in an antigen-induced arthritis model using fluorescent leukocytes and optical imaging.
Antigen-mediated monoarthritis was induced in the right knee of 12 Sprague-Dawley rats. Six rats remained untreated and six rats were treated with cortisone. All rats received ex vivo fluorescent-labeled rat leukocytes. Optical images of both knees were acquired before and at 5 min, 1 h, 4 h, and 24 h after cell injection. Images were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively by calculating signal intensity ratios between the right arthritic (A) and contralateral normal (N) knee. A/N ratios were tested for significant differences between baseline values and values after cell injection using a paired t test as well as between the untreated and cortisone-treated group using an unpaired t test. Synovial specimens were processed and evaluated for labeled cells with fluorescence microscopy.
At 4 h and 24 h p.i., the A/N ratios of untreated arthritic knees showed a significant signal increase compared with baseline values (p<0.05) and a significant difference compared with A/N ratios of cortisone-treated animals (p<0.05). Fluorescent microscopy confirmed the presence of labeled cells in the arthritic synovium.
Inflammation in antigen-induced arthritis can be detected with ex vivo labeled allogenic leukocytes and optical imaging.

2 Followers
 · 
68 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Optical imaging (OI) is an easy, fast and inexpensive tool for in vivo monitoring of new stem cell based therapies. The technique is based on ex vivo labeling of stem cells with a fluorescent dye, subsequent intravenous injection of the labeled cells and visualization of their accumulation in specific target organs or pathologies. The presented technique demonstrates how we label human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) by simple incubation with the lipophilic fluorescent dye DiD (C67H103CIN2O3S) and how we label human embryonic stem cells (hESC) with the FDA approved fluorescent dye Indocyanine Green (ICG). The uptake mechanism is via adherence and diffusion of the lypophilic dye across the phospholipid cell membrane bilayer. The labeling efficiency is usually improved if the cells are incubated with the dye in serum-free media as opposed to incubation in serum-containing media. Furthermore, the addition of the transfection agent Protamine Sulfate significantly improves contrast agent uptake.
    Journal of Visualized Experiments 02/2008; DOI:10.3791/686
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adaptability, sensitivity, resolution and non-invasiveness are the attributes that have contributed to the longstanding use of light as an investigational tool and form the basis of optical imaging (OI). OI, which encompasses numerous techniques and methods, is rapid (<5 min), inexpensive, noninvasive, nontoxic (no radiation) and has molecular (single-cell) sensitivity, which is equal to that of conventional nuclear imaging and several orders of magnitude greater than MRI. This article provides a comprehensive overview of emerging applications of OI-based techniques for in vivo monitoring of new stem cell-based therapies. Different fluorochromes for cell labeling, labeling methods and OI-based cell-tracking techniques will be reviewed with respect to their technical principles, current applications and aims for clinical translation. Advantages and limitations of these new OI-based cell-tracking techniques will be discussed. Non-invasive mapping of cells labeled with fluorochromes or OI marker genes has the potential to evolve further within the clinical realm.
    European Radiology 05/2008; 18(10):2021-32. DOI:10.1007/s00330-008-0984-z · 4.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Indocyanine green (ICG) is a contrast agent used for detecting angiogenesis with optical imaging (OI). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cooling procedures increase the signal yield of ICG with OI. Test samples of 0.05 and 0.02 mM ICG in 40% DMSO and 60% DMEM underwent OI at four different temperatures (5, 37, 55 and 75 degrees C). In addition, six athymic rats with an antigen-induced arthritis of the knee and ankle joints underwent OI before and after injection of ICG (10 mg/ml, dose 15 mg/kg) on two separate days with and without cooling of the joints. The fluorescent signals of the test samples and arthritic joints were measured and evaluated for significant differences before and after cooling with a t-test. In vitro studies showed a strong negative correlation between ICG temperature and fluorescent signal. The mean fluorescent signal of arthritic joints (measured in efficiency) was 0.345 before ICG-injection, 4.55 after ICG-injection and before cooling and 9.71 after ICG-injection and after cooling. The fluorescent signal enhancement of arthritic joints with ICG-enhanced OI images increased significantly after cooling (p = 0.02). The signal yield of ICG can be significantly increased by cooling the target pathology. The primary underlying cause of the temperature dependence of ICG is enhanced collisional quenching with increasing temperature. This simple cooling method may be immediately helpful to increase the fluorescence signal yield in current ICG-enhanced OI-studies in patients.
    Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging 09/2008; 3(5):191-7. DOI:10.1002/cmmi.251 · 3.33 Impact Factor