Increased etheno-DNA adducts in affected tissues of patients suffering from Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and chronic pancreatitis.
ABSTRACT Chronic inflammatory processes induce oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO), hereby generating DNA-reactive aldehydes such as trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Etheno-modified DNA bases are inter alia generated by reaction of DNA with HNE. Using an immunoaffinity-(32)P-postlabeling method, the authors have investigated etheno-DNA adduct levels 1,N (6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine (epsilondA) and of 3,N (4)-ethenodeoxycytidine (epsilondC) in the pancreas of chronic pancreatitis patients and in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Both epsilondA and epsilondC levels were found to be significantly, 3 and 28 times, respectively, elevated in the inflamed pancreatic tissue. In contrast, only epsilondC was found to be increased in affected colonic mucosa of Crohn's disease (19 times) and of ulcerative colitis patients (4 times) when compared to asymptomatic tissues. In all three cancer-prone diseases, the mean epsilondC-levels in tissues were five- to ninefold higher than those of epsilondA. Differential or impaired DNA repair pathways of these adducts, known to occur by two different glycosylases are implicated. K-ras in pancreatic tumors and K-ras and p53 in colon mucosa in long-standing inflammatory bowel disease are known to be highly mutated. The conclusion is that promutagenic etheno-DNA adducts are generated as a consequence of chronic inflammation, acting as a driving force to malignancy in cancer-prone inflammatory diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative-stress-driven lipid peroxidation (LPO) is involved in the pathogenesis of several human diseases, including cancer. LPO products react with cellular proteins changing their properties, and with DNA bases to form mutagenic etheno-DNA adducts, removed from DNA mainly by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. One of the major reactive aldehydes generated by LPO is 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). We investigated the effect of HNE on BER enzymes in human cells and in vitro. K21 cells pretreated with physiological HNE concentrations were more sensitive to oxidative and alkylating agents, H2O2 and MMS, than were untreated cells. Detailed examination of the effects of HNE on particular stages of BER in K21 cells revealed that HNE decreases the rate of excision of 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (ɛA) and 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (ɛC), but not of 8-oxoguanine. Simultaneously HNE increased the rate of AP-site incision and blocked the re-ligation step after the gap-filling by DNA polymerases. This suggested that HNE increases the number of unrepaired single-strand breaks (SSBs) in cells treated with oxidizing or methylating agents. Indeed, preincubation of cells with HNE and their subsequent treatment with H2O2 or MMS increased the number of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) foci, known to appear in cells in response to SSBs. However, when purified BER enzymes were exposed to HNE, only ANPG and TDG glycosylases excising ɛA and ɛC from DNA were inhibited, and only at high HNE concentrations. APE1 endonuclease and 8-oxoG-DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) were not inhibited. These results indicate that LPO products exert their promutagenic action not only by forming DNA adducts, but in part also by compromising the BER pathway.DNA Repair 07/2014; 22C:1-11. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Etheno-DNA adducts are generated from the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous lipid peroxidation. We and others have previously reported that 1,N6-ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3,N4-ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) are present in human urine and can be utilized as biomarkers of oxidative stress. In this study, we report a new ultrasensitive UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for the analysis of εdA and edC in human urine, capable of detecting 0.5 fmol εdA and 0.3 fmol εdC in 1.0 mL of human urine, respectively. For validation of the method, 20 human urine samples were analyzed, and the results revealed that the mean levels of εdA and εdC (SD) fmol/µmol creatinine are 5.82 ± 2.11 (range 3.0-9.5) for εdA and 791.4 ± 328.8 (range 116.7-1264.9) for εdC in occupational benzene-exposed workers and 2.10 ± 1.32 (range 0.6-4.7) for εdA and 161.8 ± 200.9 (range 1.8-557.5) for εdC in non-benzene-exposed workers, respectively. The ultrasensitive detection method is thus suitable for applications in human biomonitoring and molecular epidemiology studies.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10/2014; 11(10):10902-14. · 1.99 Impact Factor