Threading through the mizmaze of Bartter syndrome.
ABSTRACT The story, described here in detail, started in 1962 with the publication of a seminal paper by Frederic Bartter et al. in the December issue of the American Journal of Medicine. The authors reported two pediatric patients with hitherto undescribed features, namely growth and developmental delay associated with hypokalemic alkalosis and normal blood pressure despite high aldosterone production. It soon became clear that this condition was not so exceptional. The syndrome named after Bartter was actually identified in children as well as in adults, females as well as males and in all five continents. It took almost four decades to clarify the exact nature of the disease. Bartter disease is an autosomal recessive disorder with four genotypes and mainly two phenotypes. Moreover, there are acquired secondary forms of Bartter syndrome as well as pseudo-Bartter syndromes. The history demonstrates the power of genetics but also illustrates the fundamental and irreplaceable contributions from nephrologists and renal physiologists.
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ABSTRACT: Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive disease manifested by a defect in chloride transport in the thick loop of Henle, with different genetic origins and molecular pathophysiology. Children with Bartter syndrome generally present in early infancy with persistent polyuria and associated dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and failure to thrive. Although early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of Bartter syndrome may improve the outcome, some children will progress to renal failure. We report a case of an 8-week-old infant who was admitted for electrolyte imbalance and failure to thrive. Laboratory studies revealed hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis with severe hypokalemia. Health care providers should consider Bartter syndrome when excessive chloride losses appear to be renal in origin and the patient has normal blood pressure and high levels of serum renin and aldosterone. Treatments, including indomethacin, spironolactone, and aggressive fluid and electrolyte replacement, may prevent renal failure in children with Bartter syndrome. Molecular genetics studies are indicated to identify the primary genetic defect.International Journal of General Medicine 01/2014; 7:389-91. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S66550
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ABSTRACT: The concept of homeostasis has been inextricably linked to the function of the kidneys for more than a century when it was recognized that the kidneys had the ability to maintain the "internal milieu" and allow organisms the "physiologic freedom" to move into varying environments and take in varying diets and fluids. Early ingenious, albeit rudimentary, experiments unlocked a wealth of secrets on the mechanisms involved in the formation of urine and renal handling of the gamut of electrolytes, as well as that of water, acid, and protein. Recent scientific advances have confirmed these prescient postulates such that the modern clinician is the beneficiary of a rich understanding of the nephron and the kidney's critical role in homeostasis down to the molecular level. This review summarizes those early achievements and provides a framework and introduction for the new CJASN series on renal physiology.Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/2014; 9(7). DOI:10.2215/CJN.08860813 · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A multiplex family was identified with biochemical and clinical features suggestive of Bartter's syndrome (BS). The eldest sibling presented with developmental delay and rickets at 4 years of age with evidence of hypercalciuria and hypokalemia. The second sibling presented at 1 year of age with urinary tract infections, polyuria, and polydipsia. The third child was born after a premature delivery with a history of polyhydramnios and neonatal hypocalcemia. Following corrective treatment she also developed hypercalciuria and a hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. There was evidence of secondary hyperreninemia and hyperaldosteronism in all three siblings consistent with BS. Known BS genes were screened and functional assays of ROMK (alias KCNJ1, Kir1.1) were carried out in Xenopus oocytes. We detected compound heterozygous missense changes in KCNJ1, encoding the potassium channel ROMK. The S219R/L220F mutation was segregated from father and mother, respectively. In silico modeling of the missense mutations suggested deleterious changes. Studies in Xenopus oocytes revealed that both S219R and L220F had a deleterious effect on ROMK-mediated potassium currents. Coinjection to mimic the compound heterozygosity produced a synergistic decrease in channel function and revealed a loss of PKA-dependent stabilization of PIP2 binding. In conclusion, in a multiplex family with BS, we identified compound heterozygous mutations in KCNJ1. Functional studies of ROMK confirmed the pathogenicity of these mutations and defined the mechanism of channel dysfunction.11/2013; 1(6):e00160. DOI:10.1002/phy2.160This article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.