Electrical and chemical signals involved in short-term systemic photosynthetic responses of tobacco plants to local burning.
ABSTRACT Short-term (up to 1 h) systemic responses of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun) plants to local burning of an upper leaf were studied by measuring the following variables in a distant leaf: extracellular electrical potentials (EEPs); gas exchange parameters; fast chlorophyll fluorescence induction; and endogenous concentrations of three putative chemical signaling compounds-abscisic (ABA), jasmonic (JA), and salicylic (SA) acids. The first detected response to local burning in the distant leaves was in EEP, which started to decline within 10-20 s of the beginning of the treatment, fell sharply for ca. 1-3 min, and then tended to recover within the following hour. The measured gasometric parameters (stomatal conductance and the rates of transpiration and CO(2) assimilation) started to decrease 5-7 min after local burning, suggesting that the electrical signals may induce stomatal closure. These changes were accompanied by systemic increases in the endogenous ABA concentration followed by huge systemic rises in endogenous JA levels started after ca. 15 min, providing the first evidence of short-term systemic accumulation of these plant hormones in responses to local burning. Furthermore, JA appears to have an inhibitory effect on CO(2) assimilation. The correlations between the kinetics of the systemic EEP, stomatal, photosynthetic, ABA, and JA responses suggest that (1) electrical signals (probably induced by a propagating hydraulic signal) may trigger chemical defense-related signaling pathways in tobacco plants; (2) both electrical and chemical signals are interactively involved in the induction of short-term systemic stomatal closure and subsequent reductions in the rate of transpiration and CO(2) assimilation after local burning events.
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ABSTRACT: We explored the idea of whether electropotential waves (EPWs) primarily act as vehicles for systemic spread of Ca(2+) signals. EPW-associated Ca(2+) influx may trigger generation and amplification of countless long-distance signals along the phloem pathway given the fact that gating of Ca(2+)-permeable channels is a universal response to biotic and abiotic challenges. Despite fundamental differences, both action and variation potentials are associated with a sudden Ca(2+) influx. Both EPWs probably disperse in the lateral direction, which could be of essential functional significance. A vast set of Ca(2+)-permeable channels, some of which have been localized, is required for Ca(2+)-modulated events in sieve elements. There, Ca(2+)-permeable channels are clustered and create so-called Ca(2+) hotspots, which play a pivotal role in sieve element occlusion. Occlusion mechanisms play a central part in the interaction between plants and phytopathogens (e.g. aphids or phytoplasmas) and in transient re-organization of the vascular symplasm. It is argued that Ca(2+)-triggered systemic signalling occurs in partly overlapping waves. The forefront of EPWs may be accompanied by a burst of free Ca(2+) ions and Ca(2+)-binding proteins in the sieve tube sap, with a far-reaching impact on target cells. Lateral dispersion of EPWs may induce diverse Ca(2+) influx and handling patterns (Ca(2+) signatures) in various cell types lining the sieve tubes. As a result, a variety of cascades may trigger the fabrication of signals such as phytohormones, proteins, or RNA species released into the sap stream after product-related lag times. Moreover, transient reorganization of the vascular symplasm could modify cascades in disjunct vascular cells.Journal of Experimental Botany 01/2014; · 5.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Electrical signals (action potential and variation potential, VP) caused by environmental stimuli are known to induce various physiological responses in plants, including changes in photosynthesis; however, their functional mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, the influence of VP on photosynthesis in pea (Pisum sativum L.) was investigated and the proton participation in this process analyzed. VP, induced by local heating, inactivated photosynthesis and activated respiration, with the initiation of the photosynthetic response connected with inactivation of the photosynthetic dark stage; however, direct VP influence on the light stage was also probable. VP generation was accompanied with pH increases in apoplasts (0.17–0.30 pH unit) and decreases in cytoplasm (0.18–0.60 pH unit), which probably reflected H+-ATPase inactivation and H+ influx during this electrical event. Imitation of H+ influx using the protonophore CCCP induced a photosynthetic response that was similar with a VP-induced response. Experiments on chloroplast suspensions showed that decreased external pH also induced an analogous response and that its magnitude depended on the magnitude of pH change. Thus, the present results showed that proton cellular influx was the probable mechanism of VP's influence on photosynthesis in pea. Potential means of action for this influence are discussed.Plant Cell and Environment 03/2014; · 5.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Electrical signals (action and variation potentials) induced by local stimuli are a mechanism that underlies rapid plant response to environmental factors. Such signals induce a number of functional responses, including changes in photosynthesis. Ultimately, these responses are considered to increase plant resistance to stress factors, but this question has been poorly investigated. We studied the influence of variation potential (VP) on photosynthesis and resistance of the photosynthetic machinery to heating in leaves of pea (Pisum sativum). Localized burning induced a VP that decreased photosynthesis parameters (CO2 assimilation rate and quantum yields of photosystems I and II). The photosynthetic response was initiated by a decrease in photosynthesis dark-stage activity, which in turn increased resistance of photosystem I to heating. Three results supported this hypothesized mechanism. (i) The magnitude of VP-induced decrease in CO2 assimilation and enhanced photosystem I resistance to heating were highly correlated. (ii) The VP influence on photosystem I resistance to heating was suppressed under a low external CO2 concentration. (iii) Decreasing external CO2 concentration imitated the VP-induced photosynthetic response and increased photosystem I resistance to heating.Physiologia Plantarum 04/2014; · 3.66 Impact Factor