Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Resection of Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors

Division of Gastrointestinal and Minimally Invasive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Carolinas Medical Center, 1000 Blythe Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28203, USA.
Annals of Surgery (Impact Factor: 8.33). 07/2006; 243(6):738-45; discussion 745-7. DOI: 10.1097/01.sla.0000219739.11758.27
Source: PubMed


Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare neoplasms that require excision for cure. Although the feasibility of minimally invasive resection of gastric GIST has been established, the long-term safety and efficacy of these techniques are unclear. We hypothesized that complete resection of gastric GISTs using a combination of laparoscopic or laparoendoscopic techniques results in low perioperative morbidity and an effective long-term control of the disease.
Between August 1996 and June 2005, 50 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic or laparoendoscopic resection of gastric GISTs were identified in a prospectively collected database. Outcome measures included patient demographics and outcomes, operative findings, morbidity, and histopathologic characteristics of the tumor. Patient and tumor characteristics were analyzed to identify risk factors for tumor recurrence.
Fifty patients, mean age 60 years (range, 34-84 years), underwent 47 local and 3 segmental laparoscopic gastric resections. GI bleeding and dyspepsia were the most common symptoms. Mean tumor size was 4.4 cm (range, 1.0-8.5 cm) with the majority of the lesions located in the proximal stomach. Mean operative time was 135 minutes (range, 49-295 minutes), the mean blood loss was 85 mL (range, 10-450 mL), and the mean length of hospitalization was 3.8 days (range 1-10 days). There were no major perioperative complications or mortalities. All lesions had negative resection margins (range, 2-45 mm). Nine patients had 10 or more mitotic figures per 50 high power fields, while 11 had ulceration and/or necrosis of the lesion. At a mean follow-up of 36 months, 46 (92%) patients were disease free, 1 patient was alive with disease, 1 patient with metastases died of a cardiac event, and 2 (4%) patients died of metastatic disease. No local or port site recurrences have been identified. Patient age, tumor size, mitotic index, tumor ulceration, and necrosis were statistically associated with tumor recurrence. The presence of 10 or more mitotic figures per 50 high power fields was an independent predictor of disease progression (P = 0.006).
A laparoscopic approach to surgical resection of gastric GIST is associated with low morbidity and short hospitalization. As found in historical series of open operative resection, the tumor mitotic index predicts local recurrence. The long-term disease-free survival of 92% in our study establishes laparoscopic resection as safe and effective in treating gastric GISTs. Given these findings as well as the advantages afforded by minimally invasive surgery, a laparoscopic approach may be the preferred resection technique in most patients with small- and medium-sized gastric GISTs.

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    • "Liver is involved in more than 60% of cases, representing the only repetition site in 44% of cases [8], while extra-abdominal repetitions are found just in the advanced phases of the disease. Novitsky et al. [20] reported a 92% of 5-year disease-free survival for 4, 4 cm tumors. Other authors reported similar results for gGISTs up to 5 cm [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. With this study we focus on the etiopathogenesis and on the therapy of the simultaneous occurrence of Gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (gGIST) and adenocarcinoma of the stomach in a patient with Billroth II gastric resection (BIIGR). We report the first case of this event and a review of the literature. Methods. A 70-year-old man with a BIIGR, affected by adenocarcinoma of the stomach, was successfully treated with total gastrectomy. The histological examination showed a gastric adenocarcinoma with a synchronous GIST sized 2 cm and S-100, CD117, and CD34 positive. The mutation of PDGFR gene was detected. Discussion. This tumor is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Few cases of synchronous gastric adenocarcinoma and GIST are observed in the literature and no case in patients with BIIGR. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain this occurrence. It is frequently attributed to Metallothioneins genes mutations or embryological abnormalities, but this has not been proven yet. We suggest a hypothesis about the etiopathogenesis of this event in a BIIGR patient. Conclusion. GIST may occur synchronously with gastric adenocarcinoma. This simultaneous occurrence needs more studies to be proven. The study of Cajal cells' proliferation signalling is crucial to demonstrate our hypotesis.
    12/2013; 2013:583856. DOI:10.1155/2013/583856
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    • "Gastric GISTs located away from the gastroesophageal junction may be adequately resected with a gastric wedge resection, rather than by gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy. The lack of need for lymphadenectomies, combined with advances in minimally invasive techniques, has resulted in wider acceptance of minimally invasive approaches for resecting larger GISTs.42–44 Table 1 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of various surgical procedures for GIST resection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The discovery of activating KIT and PDGFRα mutations in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) represented a milestone as it allowed clinicians to use tyrosine kinase inhibitors, like imatinib, to treat this sarcoma. Although surgery remains the only potentially curative treatment, patients who undergo complete resection may still experience local recurrence or distant metastases. Therapeutic strategies that combine surgical resection and adjuvant imatinib may represent the best treatment to maximize patient outcomes. In addition to the use of imatinib in the adjuvant and metastatic settings, neoadjuvant imatinib, employed as a cytoreductive therapy, can decrease tumor volume, increase the probability of complete resection, and may reduce surgery-related morbidities. Thus, selected patients with metastatic disease may be treated with a combination of preoperative imatinib and metastasectomy. However, it is critical that patients with GIST be evaluated by a multidisciplinary team to coordinate surgery and targeted therapy in order to maximize clinical outcomes. Discussion Following a systematic literature review, we describe the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of GIST, with a discussion of the risk assessment for imatinib therapy. The application of surgical options, combined with adjuvant/neoadjuvant or perioperative imatinib, and their potential impact on survival for patients with primary, recurrent, or metastatic GIST are discussed.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 06/2013; 17(11). DOI:10.1007/s11605-013-2243-0 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    • "However, there is a very high risk of recurrence if there is intraperitoneal rupture or spillage during surgery [31]. The 5-year overall survival in patients with complete resection has been estimated to be superior compared to that of patients with incomplete resection (42 vs. 95%) [32]. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib have been successfully used to treat GISTs [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare abdominal tumors which arise from the interstitial cells of Cajal in the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric GISTs are the most commonly seen GIST tumors and may grow to a very large size. They are often associated with abdominal pain, anorexia and weight loss. Most of them can be detected by CT. These tumors have been found to harbor mutations in CD117 which causes constitutional activation of the tyrosine kinase signaling pathway and is considered to be pathognomic. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib have revolutionized the treatment of these tumors, which are otherwise resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been useful in prolonging the recurrence-free survival of these patients. Resistance to imatinib has been reported in GISTs with specific mutations. We present a case of gastric GIST which grew to a very large size and was associated with abdominal pain and weight loss. It was successfully resected and the patient was commenced on imatinib therapy.
    Case Reports in Oncology 03/2013; 6(1):148-53. DOI:10.1159/000350061
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