Restored activation of primary motor area from motor reorganization and improved motor function after brain tumor resection.
ABSTRACT Reorganization of brain function may result in preservation of motor function in patients with brain tumors. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether function of the primary motor area (M1) was restored and whether motor function improved after brain tumor resection.
Five patients with metastatic brain tumors located within or near M1 underwent awake surgery with intraoperative cortical mapping and continuous task monitoring. Preoperative and postoperative functional MR imaging (fMRI) was performed during hand clenching, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in 1 case to further characterize the area activated in fMRI.
Preoperative fMRI performed during hand clenching demonstrated reorganization of motor function. In patients with severe paresis (cases 3, 4, and 5), clenching of the affected hand induced a large blood oxygen level-dependent response in the right hemisphere, mainly in the anterior temporal lobe, despite the location site of the tumor. Postoperative fMRI during hand clenching demonstrated activation of the contralateral M1. Furthermore, in case 5, DTI detected tracts, possibly the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, arising from anterior temporal activated area as well as tracts connecting the premotor and M1 activated area. This patient demonstrated mirror movement of the hand during the course of motor function recovery.
Tumor resection resulted in restoration of M1 function and improved motor function in patients with preoperative reorganization of M1 function. Furthermore, the preoperative reorganization of motor function in cases with severe paresis may be related to changes in the right hemisphere, including the temporal lobe.
Article: Functional rearrangement of the primary and secondary motor cortex in patients with primary tumors of the central nervous system located in the region of the central sulcus depending on the histopathological type and the size of tumor: Examination by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the reorganization of the centers of the motor cortex in patients with primary neuroepithelial tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) located in the region of the central sulcus in relation to the histopathological type and the size of tumor, as determined by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The fMRI was performed prior to the surgical treatment of patients with tumors located in the region of the central sulcus (WHO stage I and II, n=15; WHO stage III and IV, n=25). The analysis included a record of the activity in the areas of the primary motor cortex (M1) and the secondary motor cortex: the premotor cortex (PMA) and the accessory motor area (SMA). The results were correlated with the histopathological type of the tumor and its size expressed in cm(3). The frequency of activation of the motor center was higher in the group of patients who had less aggressive tumors, such as low-grade glioma (LGG), as well as in tumors of lower volume, and this was true both for the hemisphere where the tumor was located and in the contralateral one. Mean values of t-statistics of activation intensity, mean numbers of activated clusters, and their ranges were lower in all analyzed motor areas of LGG tumors. The values of t-statistics and activation areas were higher in the case of small tumors located in ipsilateral centers, and in large tumors located in contralateral centers, aside from the SMA area where the values of t-statistics were equal for both groups. The contralateral SMA area was characterized by the highest stability of all examined centers of secondary motor cortex. No significant association (p>0.05) was observed between the absolute value of the mean registered activity (t-statistics) and the size of examined areas (number of clusters) when the groups were stratified with regards to the analyzed parameters. The presence of a neoplastic lesion, its histopathological type and finally its size modulate the functional reorganization of the motor centers as suggested by the differences in the frequency of the neural center activation in the analyzed groups. Processes of functional rearrangement are more pronounced and more precisely defined in patients with less aggressive and/or smaller tumors. The contralateral accessory area is the most frequently activated center in all analyzed groups irrespective of the grade and size of the tumor.Polish journal of radiology / Polish Medical Society of Radiology. 01/2012; 77(1):12-20.