Striatal Functional Alteration in Adolescents Characterized by Early Childhood Behavioral Inhibition

Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Commonwealth University, Ричмонд, Virginia, United States
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.75). 07/2006; 26(24):6399-405. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0666-06.2006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The temperamental style of behavioral inhibition has been characterized by exaggerated behavioral and neural responses to cues signaling threat. Virtually no work, however, has addressed whether behavioral inhibition may also confer heightened brain activation in response to positively valenced incentives. We used event-related functional MRI (fMRI) and a monetary incentive delay task to examine whether the neural response to incentives is also greater in adolescents characterized as behaviorally inhibited early in life compared with those characterized as non-inhibited. Whereas task performance did not differ between groups, fMRI revealed greater striatal activation to incentives in behaviorally inhibited adolescents than in non-inhibited adolescents. This was regardless of whether the incentive was an anticipated gain or loss. Alteration in neural systems underlying behavior modulated by both negative and positive contingencies may represent a correlate of behavioral inhibition that also underlies vulnerability to various forms of developmental psychopathology.

Download full-text


Available from: Eric E Nelson, Jul 06, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament identified early in life that is associated with increased risk for anxiety disorders. Amygdala hyperresponsivity, found both in behaviorally inhibited and anxious individuals, suggests that amygdala dysfunction may represent a marker of anxiety risk. However, broader amygdala networks have not been examined in individuals with a history of childhood BI. This study uses resting state fMRI to assess amygdala intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) in 38 healthy young adults (19 with a history of BI, 19 with no history of BI) selected from a longitudinal study. Centromedial, basolateral, and superficial amygdala iFCs were compared between groups and examined in relation to self-report measures of anxiety. Group differences were observed in amygdala iFC with prefrontal cortex, striatum, anterior insula, and cerebellum. Adults characterized with BI in childhood endorsed greater state anxiety prior to entering the scanner, which was associated with several of the group differences. Findings support enduring effects of BI on amygdala circuitry, even in the absence of current psychopathology.
    Biological Psychology 09/2014; 103. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.09.007 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adolescent risk-taking behavior has been associated with age-related changes in striatal activation to incentives. Previous cross-sectional studies have shown both increased and decreased striatal activation to incentives for adolescents compared to adults. The monetary incentive delay (MID) task, designed to assess functional brain activation in anticipation of reward, has been used extensively to examine striatal activation in both adult and adolescent populations. The current study used this task with a longitudinal approach across mid-adolescence and late adolescence/early adulthood. Twenty-two participants (13 male) were studied using the MID task at two time-points, once in mid-adolescence (mean age = 16.11; SD = 1.44) and a second time in late adolescence/early adulthood (mean age = 20.14; SD = .67). Results revealed greater striatal activation with increased age in high- compared to low-incentive contexts (incentive magnitude), for gain as well as for loss trials (incentive valence). Results extend cross-sectional findings and show reduced striatal engagement in adolescence compared to adulthood during preparation for action in an incentive context.
    Brain and Cognition 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bandc.2013.12.003 · 2.68 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Behavioral inhibition, a temperament identifiable in infancy, is associated with heightened withdrawal from social encounters. Prior studies raise particular interest in the striatum, which responds uniquely to monetary gains in behaviorally inhibited children followed into adolescence. Although behavioral manifestations of inhibition are expressed primarily in the social domain, it remains unclear whether observed striatal alterations to monetary incentives also extend to social contexts. In the current study, imaging data were acquired from 39 participants (17 males, 22 females; ages 16-18 years) characterized since infancy on measures of behavioral inhibition. A social evaluation task was used to assess neural response to anticipation and receipt of positive and negative feedback from novel peers, classified by participants as being of high or low interest. As with monetary rewards, striatal response patterns differed during both anticipation and receipt of social reward between behaviorally inhibited and noninhibited adolescents. The current results, when combined with prior findings, suggest that early-life temperament predicts altered striatal response in both social and nonsocial contexts and provide support for continuity between temperament measured in early childhood and neural response to social signals measured in late adolescence and early adulthood.
    Development and Psychopathology 02/2014; 26(1):229-43. DOI:10.1017/S0954579413000941 · 4.89 Impact Factor