Bronchoscopic diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in granulocytopenic patients with hematologic malignancies: BAL versus PSB and PBAL.
ABSTRACT Treatment of patients with hematologic malignancies is often complicated by severe respiratory infections. Bronchoscopy is generally to be used as a diagnostic tool in order to find a causative pathogen.
In a prospective study the combination of protected specimen brush (PSB) and protected bronchoalveolar lavage (PBAL) was compared with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for evaluated feasibility and diagnostic yield in granulocytopenic patients with hematologic malignancies and pulmonary infiltrates.
All specimens from 63 bronchoscopic procedures (35 BAL and 28 PSB-PBAL) were investigated by cytological examination and various microbiological tests. If clinically relevant and feasible, based on the clinical condition and/or the presence of thrombocytopenia, lung tissue samples were obtained.
The majority of the 58 included patients were diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukaemia and developed a severe neutropenia (BAL-group: 27 days; PSB-PBAL group: 30 days). Microbiological and cytological examination of 63 bronchoscopic procedures (35 BAL and 28 PSB-PBAL) yielded causative pathogens in 9 (26%) patients of the BAL-group and 8 (29%) patients of the PSB-PBAL group (PSB and PBAL 4 each). Aspergillus fumigatus was the pathogen most frequently (13%) detected. Using all available examinations including the results of autopsy, a presumptive diagnosis was established in 43% of the patients in the BAL group and 57% of those in the PSB-PBAL group; in these cases microbial aetiology was correctly identified in 67% and 57%, respectively. The complication rate was of these procedures were low, and none of the patients experienced serious complications due to the invasive techniques.
Our results showed that modern bronchoscopic techniques such as PSB and PBAL did not yield better diagnostic results compared to BAL in granulocytopenic patients with hematologic malignancies and pulmonary infiltrates. In approximately half of the cases a presumptive diagnosis was made by bronchoscopic procedures.
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ABSTRACT: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in solid-organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients presenting with a range of pulmonary complications. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the utility and potential adverse effects of diagnostic bronchoscopy for transplant recipients. Recommendations are offered on the selection of patients, the timing of bronchoscopy, and the samples to be obtained across the spectrum of suspected pulmonary complications of transplantation. Based on review of the literature, the authors recommend early diagnostic bronchoscopy over empiric treatment in transplant recipients with evidence of certain acute, subacute, or chronic pulmonary processes. This approach may be most critical when an underlying infectious etiology is suspected. In the absence of prompt diagnostic information on which to base effective treatment, the risks associated with empiric antimicrobial therapy, including medication side effects and the development of antibiotic resistance, compound the potential harm of delaying targeted management.Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 02/2013; 10(1):39-49.
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ABSTRACT: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is often performed in patients with acute leukemia developed with respiratory failure or pulmonary infiltrates. Patients usually undergo BAL to rule out infection. Occasionally, however, leukemic infiltrate may be detected. We present a series of 11 cases in which the diagnosis of leukemia was made on the BAL material. We retrospectively reviewed all BAL samples from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2008. There were a total of 1,130 cases, of which 139 showed malignant cytology, including 10 with leukemia. Sixteen samples were unsatisfactory and 904 were benign, of which 32 had identifiable microorganisms. In additional to the 10 leukemia cases identified, two more were reviewed after the search criteria. The 12 patients (seven men, five women) ranged from 22 to 75 years old. All patients had previously biopsy-proven leukemia [two acute myelomonocytic leukemia, two acute promyelocytic leukemia, two acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with inv16, two therapy-related AML, one acute monocytic leukemia, one chronic myeloid leukemia in blast face, one AML with maturation, one myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts, and one large granular leukemia]. Four had a prior diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome. The time from initial diagnosis of leukemia to BAL ranged from 1 to 233 days, with 8 of 10 occurring within 8 days of diagnosis. Symptoms that prompted BAL included shortness of breath/hypoxia (8), fever (3), chest pain (2), and cough (2). Chest X-rays in all cases revealed opacities or consolidations mimicking an inflammatory process. Seven patients subsequently died, while three were alive, and, in remission, and two were lost to follow-up. The presence of a leukemic infiltrate can mimic infection. BAL is a relatively safe and useful diagnostic tool in this setting for differentiating a leukemic infiltrate from an infection/inflammatory infiltrate. The prognosis of patients with lung involvement of acute leukemia is poor. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2012; © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Diagnostic Cytopathology 11/2012; · 1.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Up to 25% of patients with profound neutropenia lasting for >10 days develop lung infiltrates, which frequently do not respond to broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. While a causative pathogen remains undetected in the majority of cases, Aspergillus spp., Pneumocystis jirovecii, multi-resistant gram-negative pathogens, mycobacteria or respiratory viruses may be involved. In at-risk patients who have received trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis, filamentous fungal pathogens appear to be predominant, yet commonly not proven at the time of treatment initiation. Pathogens isolated from blood cultures, bronchoalveolar lavage or respiratory secretions are not always relevant for the etiology of pulmonary infiltrates and should therefore be interpreted critically. Laboratory tests for detecting Aspergillus galactomannan, beta-D-glucan or DNA from blood, bronchoalveolar lavage or tissue samples, may facilitate the diagnosis, however, most PCR assays are not yet standardized and validated. Apart from infectious agents, pulmonary side effects from cytotoxic drugs, radiotherapy, or pulmonary involvement by the underlying malignancy should be included into differential diagnosis and eventually be clarified by invasive diagnostic procedures. Pre-emptive treatment with mould-active systemic antifungal agents improves clinical outcome, while other microorganisms are preferably treated only when microbiologically documented. High-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is first choice for treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia, while cytomegalovirus pneumonia is treated primarily with ganciclovir or foscarnet in most patients. In a considerable number of patients, clinical outcome may be favorable despite respiratory failure, so that intensive care should be unrestrictedly provided in patients whose prognosis is not desperate due to other reasons.Annals of Oncology 05/2014; · 7.38 Impact Factor