A study of helminth parasites in culled cows from Ireland.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal nematode, lungworm and liver fluke infection in culled cows in Ireland. Abomasa, colorectal contents and livers were collected from 30 to 68 culled beef and dairy cows during autumn 2002 and summer 2003, respectively. Ostertagia ostertagi were found in the abomasa of only three (10%) cows sampled in autumn and in 38 (57%) cows examined in summer. The majority of positive animals had low burdens of O. ostertagi but a few individuals in the group sampled during the summer had a moderate infection (5000-10,000 adult worms). A proportion of the cows in the summer group were also co-infected with small numbers of Trichostrongylus axei. Cooperia oncophora predominated in the recoveries from the larval cultures although O. ostertagi were also recovered. The overall prevalence of Dictyocaulus viviparus was 14%, based on larval identification in faecal samples. Liver fluke, or varying degrees of pathology attributable to Fasciola hepatica, were present in 65% of the livers. The results of this study extend those of previous workers, which were largely limited to dairy cows alone and which focussed on gastrointestinal nematodes and did not include simultaneous infections with lungworm and liver fluke. It was concluded, from the level of polyparasitism evident in this study, that adult cattle should be considered in preventative approaches to bovine helminthosis.
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ABSTRACT: The bulk milk enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) is a rapid and inexpensive method of assessing herd exposure to pathogens that is increasingly being used for the diagnosis of parasite infections in dairy herds. In this paper, with the dairy herd health veterinarian in mind, we review the principles of the assay and the recent literature on the potential role of bulk milk ELISA for the diagnosis of ostertagiosis, fasciolosis, parasitic bronchitis due to cattle lung worm and neosporosis. It is generally accepted that assay results reflect exposure to the parasite rather than the presence of active infection. Bulk milk ELISA can be a useful tool for the veterinary practitioner as a component of a herd health monitoring programme or in the context of a herd health investigation. It can also play a role in regional or national surveillance programmes. However, the results need to be interpreted within the context of the herd-specific health management, the milk production pattern and the parasite life cycle.Irish veterinary journal 07/2013; 66(1):14. · 0.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ginsenosides have many biomedical efficacies, such as anti-aging, antioxidation, and anti-inflammatory activities. Compound K (CK), one of the major metabolites of ginsenosides, mediates the antimetastatic and anti-allergic activities of the ginsenosides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of CK on level of type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 activity, and protein level in ultraviolet (UV)A-irradiated fibroblasts. Fibroblasts were cultured with and without CK (0.01 μM, 0.1 μM or 1 μM) for 2 hours. Cells were sham-irradiated and irradiated with 50 kJ/m(2), 100 kJ/m(2) or 200 kJ/m(2) UVA, and incubated in serumfree Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium, with or without CK for 24 hours. MMP-1 activity in the supernatants and protein levels in the cells were assessed by zymography and western blotting, respectively. Level of type I collagen was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MMP-1 activity and protein level were increased by UVA, which was downregulated by CK. Production of type I collagen was inhibited in UVA-irradiated fibroblasts, which was upregulated by CK. CK is a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of skin photo-aging.Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 03/2011; 110(3):153-60. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anthelmintic drugs are widely used to control parasitic infections in cattle. The ProSafeBeef project addressed the need for data on the exposure of European consumers of beef to potentially harmful drug residues. A novel analytical method based on matrix solid-phase dispersive extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated for 37 anthelmintic drugs and metabolites in muscle (assay decision limits, CCα, = 0.15–10.2 µg kg−1). Seven European countries (France, Spain, Slovenia, Ireland, Italy, Belgium and Portugal) participated in a survey of retail beef purchased in local shops. Of 1061 beef samples analysed, 26 (2.45%) contained detectable residues of anthelmintic drugs (0.2–171 µg kg−1), none above its European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) or action level. Residues detected included closantel, levamisole, doramectin, eprinomectin, moxidectin, ivermectin, albendazole and rafoxanide. In a risk assessment applied to mean residue concentrations across all samples, observed residues accounted for less than 0.1% of the MRL for each compound. An exposure assessment based on the consumption of meat at the 99th percentile of consumption of adults in 14 European countries demonstrated that beef accounted for less than 0.02% of the acceptable daily intake for each compound in each country. This study is the first of its kind to apply such a risk-based approach to an extensive multi-residue survey of veterinary drug residues in food. It has demonstrated that the risk of exposure of the European consumer to anthelmintic drug residues in beef is negligible, indicating that regulation and monitoring is having the desired effect of limiting residues to non-hazardous concentrations.Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A 02/2012; 29(5):746-760. · 2.22 Impact Factor