In vitro and in vivo studies on some toxic effects of the venom from Hemiscorpious lepturus scorpion.
ABSTRACT The aim of this laboratory-based study was to investigate some of the toxic effects induced by the venom from Hemiscorpious lepturus (H. lepturus). For this aim, pharmacological, histological, biochemical methods as well as complete blood cell count were used to assess these toxic actions. In addition, in vitro haemolysis studies on human washed blood suspension and cytotoxicity on cultured fibroblasts were also undertaken. In vitro pharmacological test was made on rat isolated ileal segment. To this end, the effects of the venom on the contractile responsiveness to acetylcholine were recorded using F30 transducer and Darco chart recorder. For assessment of the haemolytic potency, varying concentrations (2, 10, 20 and 40 microg/ml) of the venom were added to 0.5 ml of 5% washed human blood and after 30 min, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24h of exposure, the degree of lysis (extent of redness developed in the supernatant solution after centrifugation) were measured by ELISA method. Cytotoxicity potential of the venom was assessed by trypan blue exclusion test. The venom (0.1, 1 and 10 microg/ml) was mixed with confluent fibroblast cell culture and the extent cytotoxicity was assessed microscopically. In vivo studies were conducted by a subcutaneous administration of sub-lethal dose (10 microg) of the venom and after 7 days the skin, at the site of injection, and kidney samples were stained by H & E method and examined microscopically. In addition, biochemical assessments including measurement of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and amylase levels and urine analysis were made. The results showed that the venom prevented the relaxation phase of the acetylcholine-induced contractions on the isolated ileal segments and finally produced sustained spasmodic contractions. This spasmodic action was abolished by 1 microM atropine. The venom produced haemolysis of red blood cells in a concentration-dependent and duration-of-exposure manner, with 100% of haemolysis produced after 24h following exposure to 40 microg/ml of venom. While cultured fibroblasts cells were more sensitive and disintegrated after 15 min of exposure to 1 microg/ml of the venom. Histological findings showed evidences of excessive inflammatory responses accompanied with signs of necrosis in the skin at the site of injection as well as structural damage in the nephrones. There was a significant rise in the serum enzymes. In addition, the number of the RBCs were reduced. The urine showed positive readings for proteinuria, blood and intact RBCs. The overall results suggest that the venom from H. lepturus primarily is a cytotoxic agent and has haemolytic, nephrotoxic and to some extent hepatotoxic activity.
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the venom from Hemiscorpius lepturus to induce expression and production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) on isolated human monocytes. For this purpose, isolated human monocytes (250,000-300,000 cells/ml) were exposed to different concentrations of the venom (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml) in 96-well plates for varying incubation periods (6, 12, and 24 hr). The end point of assessment included LDH cytotoxicity assay, measurement of expression of IL-12,p40 mRNA by real-time PCR, and quantification of IL-12 release using sandwich ELISA technique. The results showed that this venom produced concentration- and time of incubation-dependent cytotoxicity. The level of enhancement of expression and production of IL-12 were found significantly higher with lowest concentration and after 6 hr of incubation. The findings demonstrated that the venom from this scorpion contains active constituents which can direct the immune system to produce IL-12. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.Toxicon 04/2015; 100. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.04.007 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Scorpion stings are a common and important health problem in Iran, particularly in south and southwestern Iran, including the province of Khuzestan. In the area of Khuzestan near the city of Ramhormoz, Hemiscorpius lepturus (Scorpionida: Hemiscorpioiidae) and Androctonus crassicauda (Buthidae) are present. Ramhormoz is in southwestern Iran and is one of the most important foci of the scorpion sting problem. The current study was carried out to gain both epidemiological and medical information about scorpion stings in and around the city of Ramhormoz. In total, 179 people who were admitted to the Emergency Department of Ramhormoz Imam Khomeini Hospital during 2008 and 2009 after being stung by scorpions were monitored. Epidemiological and medical parameters including sex of the victim; the part of the body stung; the month when stung; the biochemical parameters comprising blood sugar (BS), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine (CR); hematological parameters including white blood cells (WBC), count blood cells (CBC), red blood cells (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (HCT), platelet (PLT); and urine analysis including hemoglobinuria were recorded. The current study showed that most of the victims were stung by H. lepturus, while very few were stung by A. crassicaud, but in over half of the cases the species was not known. Stings were most common from May to Aguust. 73% of the victims were female. The limbs were the part of the body most likely to be stung. Hemogobinuria was very common in H. lepturus victims.Journal of Insect Science 09/2013; 13:89. DOI:10.1673/031.013.8901 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several peptides contained in scorpion fluids showed diverse array of biological activities with high specificities to their targeted sites. Many investigations outlined their potent effects against microbes and showed their potential to modulate various biological mechanisms that are involved in immune, nervous, cardiovascular, and neoplastic diseases. Because of their important structural and functional diversity, it is projected that scorpion-derived peptides could be used to develop new specific drugs. This review summarizes relevant findings improving their use as valuable tools for new drugs development.Journal of Toxicology 06/2013; 2013:958797. DOI:10.1155/2013/958797