Effect of fluoride toothpastes on enamel demineralization.

Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.
BMC Oral Health (Impact Factor: 1.15). 02/2006; 6:8. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-6-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of four different toothpastes with differing fluoride compounds on enamel remineralization.
A 3 x 3 mm window on the enamel surface of 90 human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 6 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. The teeth were immersed in a toothpaste slurry containing: placebo tooth paste (group 1); remineralization solution (group 2); Elmex Anticaries (group 3); Elmex Sensitive (group 4); Blend-a-med Complete (group 5) and Colgate GRF (group 6). Ten teeth of each group were used for the determination of the F- content in the superficial enamel layer and acid solubility of enamel expressed in soluble phosphorus. Of 6 teeth of each group serial sections were cut and investigated with polarization light microscopy (PLM) and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX).
The PLM results showed an increased remineralization of the lesion body in the Elmex Anticaries, Elmex Sensitive and Colgate GRF group but not in the Blend-a-med group. A statistically significant higher Ca content was found in the Elmex Anticaries group. The fluoride content in the superficial enamel layer was significantly increased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Phosphorus solubility was significantly decreased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group.
It can be concluded that amine fluoride compounds in toothpastes result in a clearly marked remineralization of caries like enamel lesions followed by sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate formulations.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective: To identify the different fluoride levels and compounds in locally manufactured tooth pastes and the dental caries status of Karachi, Pakistan. Cross-Sectional Study. This study was conducted in the Dental Out Patient Department (OPD) of a public sector tertiary care hospital, over a period of 15 days. The local brands of toothpastes available were collected through the market survey of a major departmental store of Karachi. The quantity and the compound of fluoride claimed by the manufacturer were recorded. A group of 300 patients were evaluated through a structured proforma for their demographic characteristics, brand name of the tooth paste which they claimed to use for the past six months and the number of decayed teeth (by type 1 dental examination). Results: The clinical dental examination revealed that active tooth decay of 32.33%, 15.33% and 52.33% was observed in subjects reported the use of tooth paste with 1000ppm, 1400ppm and those which did not claim any fluoride concentration, respectively. Decay count of 52.66% was identified in subjects who used tooth pastes with sodium fluoride, while it was 37.33% where sodium mono fluoro phosphate was present. Conclusion: Relative caries preventive effects of fluoride toothpastes increase with increase in fluoride levels. NaF has been found to be superior to SMFP for the control of dental caries.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the relative performance of fluoride (F) dentifrices to promote remineralisation and enamel F acquisition using an in vitro pH-cycling model. Enamel surface morphology was investigated. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six white spot lesions and 36 sound enamel sections from extracted premolars and molars were randomly assigned to 8 experimental groups and a placebo group. Eight commercially available brands of Fdentifrices were used: A. 0.8% monofluorophospate (MFP)-silica; B. 0.8% MFP-calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate; C. 0.8% MFP-calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate; D. 0.76% MFP-aluminium hydroxide; E. 0.24% sodium fluoride (NaF)-silica and sodium pyrophosphate; F. 0.24% NaF-silica and sodium pyrophosphate; G. 0.76% MFP and 0.10% NaF-dicalcium phosphate and sodium pyrophosphate (1450 ppm F); H. 0.76% MFP and 0.33% NaF-silica (2500 ppm F). The placebo (I) contained non-fluoridated silica. The cycling regimen comprised the following: three 2-min and one 4-min daily treatments with dentifrice slurries, rinsed with water and stored in fresh whole saliva at 37°C until the next experimental day, when specimens were activated in acid buffer solutions prior to each dentifrice treatment. This pH cycling continued for 21 consecutive days. Lesion depths and size were measured using a polarising microscope and enamel F uptake was determined using the acid-etch biopsy technique. The morphology of enamel surfaces was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The data were statistically analysed using Student's t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Results: All tested fluoride dentifrices significantly enhanced remineralisation by reducing the lesion depths from 6.4 to 17.1 µm and lesion sizes by 10% to 34% relative to the pre-cycling measurements. Overall, the degree of remineralisation was as follows: NaF-silica-pyrophosphate dentifrices (1000 ppm F) averaged 41%; NaF/MFP-silica (1500/1000 ppm F) 38%; MFP/NaF-dicalcium phosphate (1000/450 ppm F) 30%; MFP dentifrices (1000 ppm F) ranged from 15 to 23%. Enamel F uptake by NaF and NaF/MFP was significantly greater than MFP dentifrices (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001), with the area under the depth curve being 2.4 and 2.2 times greater, respectively. At all enamel depths, fluoride dentifrices significantly increased F concentrations relative to the control (P < 0.001). A strong correlation was found between ionic F levels in dentifrices and their efficacy. Dentifrices produced different enamel surface morphologies. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that commercially available dentifrices vary in their degree of effectiveness and mode of action depending on formulations.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Er:YAG laser and its association with fluoride (1.23 % acidulate phosphate fluoride gel) on the prevention of enamel erosion. Sixty specimens were obtained from bovine enamel (4 × 4 mm), which were ground flat, polished, and randomly divided into five groups according to the preventive treatments: control-fluoride application; L-Er:YAG laser; L+F-laser + fluoride; F+L-fluoride + laser; L/F-laser/fluoride simultaneously. Half of the enamel surface was covered with nail varnish (control area), and the other half was pretreated with one of the preventive strategies to subsequently be submitted to erosive challenge. When the laser was applied, it was irradiated for 10 s with a focal length of 4 mm and 60 mJ/2Hz. Fluoride gel was applied for 4 min. Each specimen was individually exposed to regular Coca-Cola® for 1 min, four times/day, for 5 days. Wear analysis was performed with a profilometer, and demineralization was assessed with an optical microscope. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (wear)/Dunn test and ANOVA/Fisher's exact tests. The group L/F was similar to control group. The other groups showed higher wear, which did not present differences among them. In the demineralization assessment, the groups F+L and L/F showed lower demineralization in relation to the other groups. It can be concluded that none preventive method was able to inhibit dental wear. The treatments L/F and F+L showed lower enamel demineralization.
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