Effect of fluoride toothpastes on enamel demineralization

Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Witten/Herdecke, Witten, Germany.
BMC Oral Health (Impact Factor: 1.13). 02/2006; 6(1):8. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-6-8
Source: PubMed


It was the aim of this study to investigate the effect of four different toothpastes with differing fluoride compounds on enamel remineralization.
A 3 x 3 mm window on the enamel surface of 90 human premolars was demineralized in a hydroxyethylcellulose solution at pH 4.8. The teeth were divided into 6 groups and the lower half of the window was covered with varnish serving as control. The teeth were immersed in a toothpaste slurry containing: placebo tooth paste (group 1); remineralization solution (group 2); Elmex Anticaries (group 3); Elmex Sensitive (group 4); Blend-a-med Complete (group 5) and Colgate GRF (group 6). Ten teeth of each group were used for the determination of the F- content in the superficial enamel layer and acid solubility of enamel expressed in soluble phosphorus. Of 6 teeth of each group serial sections were cut and investigated with polarization light microscopy (PLM) and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX).
The PLM results showed an increased remineralization of the lesion body in the Elmex Anticaries, Elmex Sensitive and Colgate GRF group but not in the Blend-a-med group. A statistically significant higher Ca content was found in the Elmex Anticaries group. The fluoride content in the superficial enamel layer was significantly increased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group. Phosphorus solubility was significantly decreased in both Elmex groups and the Blend-a-med group.
It can be concluded that amine fluoride compounds in toothpastes result in a clearly marked remineralization of caries like enamel lesions followed by sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate formulations.

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    • "Thus, in terms of bioavailability this translates into a significantly higher salivary fluoride level being available from AmF than NaF. Studies have reported that the quality of remineralization with AmF is superior to that of NaF due to the slow release of fluoride and a constant salivary fluoride level.[2627] "
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    ABSTRACT: Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting the human dentition. Fluorides are effective anti-carious agents and have been widely used for caries prevention in the form of systemic and topical fluorides. Neutral sodium fluoride (NaF) is commonly used as a topical fluoride agent. A special category of topical fluorides are organic fluorides in the form of amine fluorides (AmF). Researchers have reported that AmF is superior to inorganic fluorides in improving the caries resistance of enamel due to the significant anti-enzyme effect of the organic fragment. The aim of the present study was to compare the enamel surface micro hardness after topical application of NaF and AmF solutions. Twenty fresh samples of sound human enamel were treated with demineralizing solution for 72 h and divided into Group A (treated with NaF) and Group B (treated with AmF) solutions for 3 min twice daily for 7 days. In between treatment, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. The enamel surface hardness was measured with Vickers hardness test at baseline, post-demineralization and post-treatment with two different fluoride solutions (NaF and AmF) and a comparative analysis was made. The increase in mean micro hardness of human enamel after treatment with AmF application was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.01) when compared to the mean micro hardness after treatment with NaF. Fluoride enhances the remineralization process by accelerating the growth of enamel crystals that have been demineralized. It can be concluded from the present study that AmF compounds result in a marked increase in enamel micro hardness when compared to NaF.
    Journal of Conservative Dentistry 05/2013; 16(3):203-7. DOI:10.4103/0972-0707.111314
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    • "The demonstrated reduction in mineral concentration is due to the drop of pH below the critical point for hydroxyapatite dissolution (Arnold et al., 2006). The critical dissolution pH for enamel is 5.5 and 6.7 for dentin (Ponduri et al., 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μEDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA; E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. μEDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (p<0.05). Differences were observed among groups for the 960 cm(-1) peak. Ca and P content differences were significant (SH5>NT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The SEM images in the EDTA-treated groups had the highest number of open tubules. Erosion in the tubules was observed in CHX and SH5E groups. Endodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.
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    • "This will permit intervention in a presymptomatic state. This is particularly important to early childhood dental caries, as the disease is believed to be reversible in its early stage [34]. Further refinement of clinically useful microbial and salivary biomarkers will aid risk assessment and identification of therapeutic targets. "
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