In this study, we did a bioassay employing mice with a dominant-negative p53 mutation (p53(Val135/WT)) to assess whether a germ-line p53 mutation predisposed mice toward the development of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) in the oral cavity. Treatment of the mouse oral cavity with 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide produced a 66%, 91%, and 20% tumor incidence in the oral cavity, esophagus, and forestomach/stomach, respectively, in p53(Val135/WT) mice. In contrast, only a 25%, 58%, and 4% tumor incidence was observed in oral cavity, esophagus, and forestomach/stomach, respectively, in wild-type littermates (p53(WT/WT)). The most striking difference between p53(Val135/WT) and p53(WT/WT) mice following the carcinogen treatment was the higher prevalence and more rapid development of SSC in p53(Val135/WT) mice than in wild-type mice. To identify the precise genes or pathways involved in these differences during tumor development, we examined gene expression profiles of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-treated normal tongues as well as tongue SCC in p53(Val135/WT) and p53(WT/WT) mice. Microarray and GenMAPP analysis revealed that dominant-negative p53 ((135)Valp53) affects several cellular processes involved in SCC development. Affected processes included apoptosis and cell cycle arrest pathways, which were modulated in both tumor and normal epithelium. These results showed that reduction of p53-dependent apoptosis and increases in cell proliferation might contribute to the observed increase in oral cavity and gastroesophageal malignancies in p53(Val135/WT) mice as well as to the more rapid growth and progression of tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the susceptibility of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced tongue carcinogenesis in male CB6F1-Tg-rasH2 @Jcl mice (Tg mice). The Tg mice were administered 4-NQO (20 p.p.m. in drinking water) for 2, 4, 6 or 8 weeks, and thereafter they were untreated up to week 24. At week 24, a higher incidence (80%) of tongue neoplasm with dysplasia was noted in the mice that received 4-NQO for 8 weeks in comparison with the other groups (20% incidence for each) treated with 4-NQO for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Esophageal tumors also developed in the Tg mice were 4-NQO. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that the EP receptors, especially EP(1) and EP(2), expressed in the tongue and esophageal lesions induced by 4-NQO, thus suggesting the involvement of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) and EP(1,2) receptors in the tongue and esophageal carcinogenesis. Using this animal model, we investigated the potential chemopreventive ability of pitavastatin (1, 5 and 10 p.p.m. in diet for 15 weeks), starting 1 week after the cessation of 4-NQO-exposure (20 p.p.m. in drinking water for 8 weeks). Dietary pitavastatin at 10 p.p.m. significantly reduced the incidence and multiplicity of the tongue, but not esophageal neoplasms by the modulation of prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis, EP(1) and EP(2) expression and proliferation. Our results thus suggest that a rasH2 mouse model of 4-NQO-induced tongue and esophageal carcinogenesis can be utilized for investigating the pathogenesis of cancer development in these tissues and may well prove to be useful for identifying candidate cancer chemopreventive agents for the upper digestive organs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Data on the biological effects of some overexpressed oncogenes and their cooperation with cellular factors are, at least partially, contradictory. There are reports on the strong pro-apoptotic action of temperature-sensitive (ts) p53(135val) in transformed cells at permissive temperature. However, in our experience very high levels of p53(135val) induce in transformed rat cells at permissive temperature cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis. Comparison of the experimental protocols reveals that cells used for transfection strongly differ. Therefore, we decided to explore the impact of primary cells used for generation of cell clones on the biological effects evoked by p53 and c-Ha-Ras. In the present study, we used primary rat cells (RECs) isolated from rat embryos of different age: at 13.5 gd (y) and 15.5 gd (o). We immortalized rat cells using ts p53(135val) mutant and additionally generated transformed cells after co-transfection with oncogenic Ras. The RECs were transfected with a constitutively activated Ha-Ras protein, a mutation that is found in a wide variety of human tumors. The ts p53(135Val) mutant, switching between wild-type (wt) and mutant conformation, offers the possibility to study the escape from p53-mediated cell cycle control in a model of malignant transformation in cells with the same genetic background. Surprisingly, the kinetics of cell proliferation at non-permissive temperature and that of cell cycle arrest at 32 degrees C strongly differed between cell clones established from yRECs and oRECs, thereby indicating that overexpression of genes such as ts p53(135Val) mutant and oncogenic-Ha-Ras does not fully override the intrinsic cellular program.
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