A limited sampling model for estimation of total and unbound mycophenolic acid (MPA) area under the curve (AUC) in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT)
ABSTRACT Renal transplant patients with suboptimal mycophenolic acid (MPA) areas under the curves (AUCs) are at greater risk of acute rejection. In hematopoietic cell transplantation, a low MPA AUC is also associated with a higher incidence of acute graft versus host disease. Therefore, a limited sampling model was developed and validated to simultaneously estimate total and unbound MPA AUC0-12 in hematopoietic cell transplantation patients.
Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling was performed at steady state between days 3 to 7 posttransplant in 73 adult subjects while receiving prophylactic mycophenolate mofetil 1 g per 12 hours orally or intravenously plus cyclosporine. Total and unbound MPA plasma concentrations were measured, and total and unbound AUC0-12 was determined using noncompartmental analysis. Regression analysis was then performed to build IV and PO, total and unbound AUC0-12 models from the first 34 subjects. The predictive performance of these models was tested in the next 39 subjects.
Trough concentrations poorly estimate observed total and unbound AUC0-12 (r<0.48). A model with 3 concentrations (2-, 4-, and 6-hour post start of infusion) best estimated observed total and unbound AUC0-12 after IV dosing (r>0.99). Oral total and unbound AUC0-12 was more difficult to estimate and required at least 4 concentrations (0-, 1-, 2-, and 6-hour post dose) in the model (r>0.85). The predictive performance of the final models was good. Eighty-three percent of IV and 70% of PO AUC0-12 predictions fell within +/-20% of the observed values without significant bias.
Trough MPA concentrations do not accurately describe MPA AUC0-12. Three intravenous (2-, 4-, 6-hour post start of infusion) or 4 oral (0-, 1-, 2-, and 6-hour post dose) MPA plasma concentrations measured over a 12-hour dosing interval will estimate the total and unbound AUC0-12 nearly as well as intensive pharmacokinetic sampling with good precision and low bias. This approach simplifies AUC0-12 targeting of MPA post hematopoietic cell transplantation.
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ABSTRACT: Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is more and more used to prevent GVHD (Graft Versus Host Disease) during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with reduce-intensity conditioning. If several facts argue in favor of therapeutic drug monitoring, the used pharmacokinetic parameter is to be defined. Especially, the choice between total or ultrafilterable MPA is still under debate even if therapeutic drug monitoring seems to be more practicable with total MPA. The role of other factors implied in GVHD occurrence are also to be assessed in studies which aim at assessing therapeutic drug monitoring of MPA in such situation. For theses reasons, the level evidence of MPA as GVHD prophylaxis during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with reduce-intensity conditioning is potentially useful.Thérapie 66(1):51-55. DOI:10.2515/therapie/2010024 · 0.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is a strong independent cardiovascular risk factor, which has been attributed to its role in reverse cholesterol transport. Whereas HDL also has potent antiinflammatory effects, the relevance of this property remains to be established in humans. In the present study, we evaluated whether there is a relation between HDL and sensitivity toward a low-dose endotoxin challenge. Thirteen healthy men with genetically determined isolated low HDL cholesterol (averaging 0.7+/-0.1 mmol/L) and 14 age- and body weight-matched healthy men with normal/high HDL cholesterol levels (1.9+/-0.4 mmol/L) were challenged with low-dose endotoxin intravenously (1 ng/kg body weight). The incidence and severity of endotoxin-associated clinical symptoms was increased in the low HDL group. Accordingly, both the inflammatory response (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) as well as thrombin generation (prothrombin activation fragments F(1+2)) were significantly increased in the low HDL group on endotoxin challenge. Low HDL in healthy males is associated with increased sensitivity toward inflammatory stimuli as reflected by enhanced inflammatory and coagulation responses on endotoxin challenge. These antiinflammatory effects of HDL in humans may lend further support to HDL-increasing interventions, particularly in proinflammatory conditions, such as acute coronary syndromes.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 06/2007; 27(5):1153-8. DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.106.136325 · 5.53 Impact Factor