Article

Ancestral and consensus envelope immunogens for HIV-1 subtype C.

Department of Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294, USA.
Virology (Impact Factor: 3.37). 10/2006; 352(2):438-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2006.05.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Immunogens based on "centralized" (ancestral or consensus) HIV-1 sequences minimize the genetic distance between vaccine strains and contemporary viruses and should thus elicit immune responses that recognize a broader spectrum of viral variants. However, the biologic, antigenic and immunogenic properties of such inferred gene products have to be validated experimentally. Here, we report the construction and characterization of the first full-length ancestral (AncC) and consensus (ConC) env genes of HIV-1 (group M) subtype C. The codon-usage-optimized genes expressed high levels of envelope glycoproteins that were incorporated into HIV-1 virions, mediated infection via the CCR5 co-receptor and retained neutralizing epitopes as recognized by plasma from patients with chronic HIV-1 subtype C infection. Guinea pigs immunized with AncC and ConC env DNA developed high titer binding, but no appreciable homologous or heterologous neutralizing antibodies. When tested by immunoblot analysis, sera from AncC and ConC env immunized guinea pigs recognized a greater number of primary subtype C envelope glycoproteins than sera from guinea pigs immunized with a contemporary subtype C env control. Mice immunized with AncC and ConC env DNA developed gamma interferon T cell responses that recognized overlapping peptides from the cognate ConC and a heterologous subtype C Env control. Thus, both AncC and ConC env genes expressed functional envelope glycoproteins that were immunogenic in laboratory animals and elicited humoral and cellular immune responses of comparable breadth and magnitude. These results establish the utility of centralized HIV-1 subtype C Env immunogens and warrant their continued evaluation as potential components of future AIDS vaccines.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
69 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development of a preventative HIV/AIDS vaccine is challenging due to the diversity of viral genome sequences, especially in the viral envelope (Env160). Since it is not possible to directly match the vaccine strain to the vast number of circulating HIV-1 strains, it is necessary to develop an HIV-1 vaccine that can protect against a heterologous viral challenge. Previous studies from our group demonstrated that a mixture of wild type clade B Envgp160s were able to protect against a heterologous clade B challenge more effectively than a consensus clade B Envgp160 vaccine. In order to broaden the immune response to other clades of HIV, in this study rhesus macaques were vaccinated with a polyvalent mixture of purified HIV-1 trimerized consensus Envgp140 proteins representing clades A, B, C, and E. The elicited immune responses were compared to a single consensus Envgp140 representing all isolates in group M (Con M). Both vaccines elicited anti- Envgp140 IgG antibodies that bound an equal number of HIV-1 Envgp160 proteins representing clades A, B and C. In addition, both vaccines elicited antibodies that neutralized the HIV-1SF162 isolate. However, the vaccinated monkeys were not protected against SHIVSF162p4 challenge. These results indicate that consensus Envgp160 vaccines, administered as purified Envgp140 trimers, elicit antibodies that bind to Envgp160s from strains representing multiple clades of HIV-1, but these vaccines did not protect against heterologous SHIV challenge.
    Virology Journal 04/2013; 10(1):102. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antibodies that neutralize (nAbs) genetically diverse HIV-1 strains have been recovered from a subset of HIV-1 infected subjects during chronic infection. Exact mechanisms that expand the otherwise narrow neutralization capacity observed during early infection are, however, currently undefined. Here we characterized the earliest nAb responses in a subtype A HIV-1 infected Rwandan seroconverter who later developed moderate cross-clade nAb breadth, using (i) envelope (Env) glycoproteins from the transmitted/founder virus and twenty longitudinal nAb escape variants, (ii) longitudinal autologous plasma, and (iii) autologous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Initially, nAbs targeted a single region of gp120, which flanked the V3 domain and involved the alpha2 helix. A single amino acid change at one of three positions in this region conferred early escape. One immunoglobulin heavy chain and two light chains recovered from autologous B cells comprised two mAbs, 19.3H-L1 and 19.3H-L3, which neutralized the founder Env along with one or three of the early escape variants carrying these mutations, respectively. Neither mAb neutralized later nAb escape or heterologous Envs. Crystal structures of the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs) revealed flat epitope contact surfaces, where minimal light chain mutation in 19.3H-L3 allowed for additional antigenic interactions. Resistance to mAb neutralization arose in later Envs through alteration of two glycans spatially adjacent to the initial escape signatures. The cross-neutralizing nAbs that ultimately developed failed to target any of the defined V3-proximal changes generated during the first year of infection in this subject. Our data demonstrate that this subject's first recognized nAb epitope elicited strain-specific mAbs, which incrementally acquired autologous breadth, and directed later B cell responses to target distinct portions of Env. This immune re-focusing could have triggered the evolution of cross-clade antibodies and suggests that exposure to a specific sequence of immune escape variants might promote broad humoral responses during HIV-1 infection.
    PLoS Pathogens 02/2013; 9(2):e1003173. · 8.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Identifying the targets of broadly neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 and understanding how these antibodies develop remain important goals in the quest to rationally develop an HIV-1 vaccine. We previously identified a participant in the CAPRISA Acute Infection Cohort (CAP257) whose plasma neutralized 84% of heterologous viruses. In this study we showed that breadth in CAP257 was largely due to the sequential, transient appearance of three distinct broadly neutralizing antibody specificities spanning the first 4.5 years of infection. The first specificity targeted an epitope in the V2 region of gp120 that was also recognized by strain-specific antibodies 7 weeks earlier. Specificity for the autologous virus was determined largely by a rare N167 antigenic variant of V2, with viral escape to the more common D167 immunotype coinciding with the development of the first wave of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Escape from these broadly neutralizing V2 antibodies through deletion of the glycan at N160 was associated with exposure of an epitope in the CD4 binding site that became the target for a second wave of broadly neutralizing antibodies. Neutralization by these CD4 binding site antibodies was almost entirely dependent on the glycan at position N276. Early viral escape mutations in the CD4 binding site drove an increase in wave two neutralization breadth, as this second wave of heterologous neutralization matured to recognize multiple immunotypes within this site. The third wave targeted a quaternary epitope that did not overlap any of the four known sites of vulnerability on the HIV-1 envelope and remains undefined. Altogether this study showed that the human immune system is capable of generating multiple broadly neutralizing antibodies in response to a constantly evolving viral population that exposes new targets as a consequence of escape from earlier neutralizing antibodies.
    PLoS Pathogens 10/2013; 9(10):e1003738. · 8.14 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
0 Downloads
Available from