Molecular modeling benzo[a]pyrene N2-dG adducts in the two overlapping active sites of the Y-family DNA polymerase Dpo4.
ABSTRACT The potent, ubiquitous environmental mutagen/carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) induces a single major adduct [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG, whose bypass in most cases results in either no mutation (dCTP insertion) or a G-->T mutation (dATP insertion). Translesion synthesis (TLS) of [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG generally requires DNA polymerases (DNAPs) in the Y-family, which exist in cells to bypass DNA damage caused by chemicals and radiation. A molecular dynamics (MD) study is described with dCTP opposite [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG in Dpo4, which is the best studied Y-family DNAP from a structural point of view. Two orientations of B[a]P-N2-dG (BPmi5 and BPmi3) are considered, along with two orientations of the dCTP (AS1 and AS2), as outlined next. Based on NMR studies, the pyrene moiety of B[a]P-N2-dG is in the minor groove, when paired with dC, and can point toward either the base on the 5'-side (BPmi5) or the 3'-side (BPmi3). Based on published X-ray structures, Dpo4 appears to have two partially overlapping active sites. The architecture of active site 1 (AS1) is similar to all other families of DNAPs (e.g., the shape of the dNTP). Active site 2 (AS2), however, is non-canonical (e.g., the beta- and gamma-phosphates in AS2 are approximately where the alpha- and beta-phosphates are in AS1). In the Dpo4 models generated herein, using the BPmi3 orientation the pyrene moiety of [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG points toward the duplex region of the DNA, and is accommodated without distortions in AS1, but with distortions in AS2. Considering the BPmi5 orientation, the pyrene moiety points toward the ss-region of DNA in Dpo4, and sits in a hole defined by the fingers and little fingers domain ("chimney"); BPmi5 is accommodated in AS2 without significant distortions, but poorly in AS1. In summary, when dCTP is paired with [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG in the two overlapping active sites in Dpo4, the pyrene in the BPmi3 orientation is accommodated better in active site 1 (AS1), while the pyrene in the BPmi5 orientation is accommodated better in AS2. Finally, we discuss why Y-family DNAPs might have two catalytic active sites.
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ABSTRACT: Somatic mutations are hallmarks of cancer progression. We sequenced 26 matched human prostate tumor and constitutional DNA samples for somatic alterations in the SRD5A2, HPRT, and HSD3B2 genes, and identified 71 nucleotide substitutions. Of these substitutions, 79% (56/71) occur within a WKVnRRRnVWK sequence (a novel motif we call THEMIS [from the ancient Greek goddess of prophecy]: W=A/T, K=G/T, V=G/A/C, R=purine (A/G), and n=any nucleotide), with one mismatch allowed. Literature searches identified this motif with one mismatch allowed in 66% (37/56) of the somatic prostate cancer mutations and in 74% (90/122) of the somatic breast cancer mutations found in all human genes analyzed. We also found the THEMIS motif with one allowed mismatch in 88% (23/26) of the ras1 gene somatic mutations formed in the sensitive to skin carcinogenesis (SENCAR) mouse model, after induction of error-prone DNA repair following mutagenic treatment. The high prevalence of the motif in each of the above mentioned cases cannot be explained by chance (P<0.046). We further identified 27 somatic mutations in the error-prone DNA polymerase genes pol η, pol κ, and pol β in these prostate cancer patients. The data suggest that most somatic nucleotide substitutions in human cancer may occur in sites that conform to the THEMIS motif. These mutations may be caused by “mutator” mutations in error-prone DNA polymerase genes. Hum Mutat 0, 1–10, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.Human Mutation 01/2009; 30(1):39 - 48. DOI:10.1002/humu.20810 · 5.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The reduction in the efficacy of therapeutic antibiotics represents a global problem of increasing intensity and concern. Nitrofuran antibiotics act primarily through the formation of covalent adducts at the N(2) atom of the deoxyguanosine nucleotide in genomic DNA. These adducts inhibit replicative DNA polymerases (dPols), leading to the death of the prokaryote. N(2)-furfuryl-deoxyguanosine (fdG) represents a stable structural analog of the nitrofuran-induced adducts. Unlike other known dPols, DNA polymerase IV (PolIV) from E. coli can bypass the fdG adduct accurately with high catalytic efficiency. This property of PolIV is central to its role in reducing the sensitivity of E. coli toward nitrofuran antibiotics such as nitrofurazone (NFZ). We present the mechanism used by PolIV to bypass NFZ-induced adducts and thus improve viability of E. coli in the presence of NFZ. Our results can be used to develop specific inhibitors of PolIV that may potentiate the activity of nitrofuran antibiotics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: DNA adducts, which block replicative DNA polymerases (DNAPs), are often bypassed by lesion-bypass DNAPs, which are mostly in the Y-Family. Y-Family DNAPs can do non-mutagenic or mutagenic dNTP insertion, and understanding this difference is important, because mutations transform normal into tumorigenic cells. Y-Family DNAP architecture that dictates mechanism, as revealed in structural and modeling studies, is considered. Steps from adduct blockage of replicative DNAPs, to bypass by a lesion-bypass DNAP, to resumption of synthesis by a replicative DNAP are described. Catalytic steps and protein conformational changes are considered. One adduct is analyzed in greater detail: the major benzo[a]pyrene adduct (B[a]P-N(2)-dG), which is bypassed non-mutagenically (dCTP insertion) by Y-family DNAPs in the IV/κ-class and mutagenically (dATP insertion) by V/η-class Y-Family DNAPs. Important architectural differences between IV/κ-class versus V/η-class DNAPs are discussed, including insights gained by analyzing ~400 sequences each for bacterial DNAPs IV and V, along with sequences from eukaryotic DNAPs kappa, eta and iota. The little finger domains of Y-Family DNAPs do not show sequence conservation; however, their structures are remarkably similar due to the presence of a core of hydrophobic amino acids, whose exact identity is less important than the hydrophobic amino acid spacing.Journal of nucleic acids 01/2010; 2010. DOI:10.4061/2010/784081