The potent, ubiquitous environmental mutagen/carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) induces a single major adduct [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG, whose bypass in most cases results in either no mutation (dCTP insertion) or a G-->T mutation (dATP insertion). Translesion synthesis (TLS) of [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG generally requires DNA polymerases (DNAPs) in the Y-family, which exist in cells to bypass DNA damage caused by chemicals and radiation. A molecular dynamics (MD) study is described with dCTP opposite [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG in Dpo4, which is the best studied Y-family DNAP from a structural point of view. Two orientations of B[a]P-N2-dG (BPmi5 and BPmi3) are considered, along with two orientations of the dCTP (AS1 and AS2), as outlined next. Based on NMR studies, the pyrene moiety of B[a]P-N2-dG is in the minor groove, when paired with dC, and can point toward either the base on the 5'-side (BPmi5) or the 3'-side (BPmi3). Based on published X-ray structures, Dpo4 appears to have two partially overlapping active sites. The architecture of active site 1 (AS1) is similar to all other families of DNAPs (e.g., the shape of the dNTP). Active site 2 (AS2), however, is non-canonical (e.g., the beta- and gamma-phosphates in AS2 are approximately where the alpha- and beta-phosphates are in AS1). In the Dpo4 models generated herein, using the BPmi3 orientation the pyrene moiety of [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG points toward the duplex region of the DNA, and is accommodated without distortions in AS1, but with distortions in AS2. Considering the BPmi5 orientation, the pyrene moiety points toward the ss-region of DNA in Dpo4, and sits in a hole defined by the fingers and little fingers domain ("chimney"); BPmi5 is accommodated in AS2 without significant distortions, but poorly in AS1. In summary, when dCTP is paired with [+ta]-B[a]P-N2-dG in the two overlapping active sites in Dpo4, the pyrene in the BPmi3 orientation is accommodated better in active site 1 (AS1), while the pyrene in the BPmi5 orientation is accommodated better in AS2. Finally, we discuss why Y-family DNAPs might have two catalytic active sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genome and its nucleotide precursor pool are under sustained attack by radiation, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, chemical carcinogens, hydrolytic reactions, and certain drugs. As a result, a large and heterogeneous population of damaged nucleotides forms in all cells. Some of the lesions are repaired, but for those that remain, there can be serious biological consequences. For example, lesions that form in DNA can lead to altered gene expression, mutation, and death. This perspective examines systems developed over the past 20 years to study the biological properties of single DNA lesions.
Chemical Research in Toxicology 02/2008; 21(1):232-52. DOI:10.1021/tx700292a · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When a high-fidelity DNA polymerase encounters certain DNA-damage sites, its progress can be stalled and one or more lesion-bypass polymerases are recruited to transit the lesion. Here, we consider two representative types of lesions: (i) 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a small, highly prevalent lesion caused by oxidative damage; and (ii) bulky lesions derived from the environmental pre-carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene, in the high-fidelity DNA polymerase Bacillus fragment (BF) from Bacillus stearothermophilus and in the lesion-bypass DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) from Sulfolobus solfataricus. The tight fit of the BF polymerase around the nascent base pair contrasts with the more spacious, solvent-exposed active site of Dpo4, and these differences in architecture result in distinctions in their respective functions: one-step versus stepwise polymerase translocation, mutagenic versus accurate bypass of 8-oxoG, and polymerase stalling versus mutagenic bypass at bulky benzo[a]pyrene-derived lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemicals and radiation can damage DNA leading to the formation of adducts/lesions, which - if not removed by DNA repair pathways - usually block replicative DNA polymerases (DNAPs). To overcome such potentially lethal blockage, cells have lesion bypass DNAPs, which are often in the Y-Family and include several classes. One class includes human DNAP kappa and E. coli DNAP IV, and they insert dCTP in the non-mutagenic pathway opposite [+ta]-B[a]P-N(2)-dG, which is the major adduct formed by the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene. Another class includes hDNAP eta and ecDNAP V, and they insert dATP opposite [+ta]-B[a]P-N(2)-dG in the dominant G-->T mutagenic pathway. Herein we develop a hypothesis for why the IV/kappa-class preferentially does cellular dCTP insertion. On the minor groove side of the active site, Y-Family DNAPs have a cleft/hole that can be analyzed based on an analogy to a "chimney." Our models of DNAP IV show a large chimney opening from which the pyrene of [+ta]-B[a]P-N(2)-dG can protrude, which allows canonical adduct-dG:dCTP pairing. In contrast, our models of DNAP V have small chimney openings that forces adduct-dG downward in the active site such that canonical adduct-dG:dCTP pairing is not possible. Based on X-ray structures, sequence alignment and our modeled structures of Y-Family DNAPs, chimney opening size seems primarily controlled by one amino acid ("flue-handle"), which dictates whether nearby amino acids ("flue") plug the chimney or not. Based on this analysis, a correlation is apparent: the flue is closed in V/eta-class DNAPs giving small chimney openings, while the flue is open for the IV/kappa-class giving large chimney openings. Secondarily, a hypothesis is developed for why the V/eta-class might preferentially do cellular dATP insertion opposite [+ta]-B[a]P-N(2)-dG: the small chimney forces adduct-dG lower in the active site, possibly leading to catalysis using a non-canonical dNTP shape that permits syn-adenine:adduct-dG base pairing. In summary, a hypothesize is developed that the pyrene moiety of [+ta]-B[a]P-N(2)-dG protrudes from the large chimney opening of DNAP IV, thus permitting canonical dCTP:adduct-dG pairing, while the small chimney opening of DNAP V forces [+ta]-B[a]P-N(2)-dG lower down in the active site, in which syn-adenine can pair with adduct-dG via a non-canonical dNTP shape.
V. Kasuba, D. Zeljezic, M. Mladinic, N. Kopjar, R. Rozgaj
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