Growth-associated gene and protein expression in the region of axonal sprouting in the aged brain after stroke.
ABSTRACT Aged individuals exhibit reduced functional recovery after stroke. We examined the expression profile in aged animals of a recently identified group of growth-associated genes that underlies post-stroke axonal sprouting in the young adult. Basal levels of most growth-promoting genes are higher in aged cortex compared with young adult, and are further induced after stroke. Compared with the young adult, these genes are induced at later time points after stroke. For growth-inhibitory molecules, myelin-associated glycoprotein and ephrin A5 are uniquely induced in the aged brain; chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein are induced at earlier time points; and Nogo-A, semaphorin IIIa and NG2 decline in aged vs. young adult after stroke. The aged brain does not simply have a reduction in growth-associated molecules after stroke, but a completely unique molecular profile of post-stroke axonal sprouting.
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ABSTRACT: The process of brain remodeling after stroke is time- and neural activity-dependent, and the latter makes it inherently sensitive to behavioral experiences. This generally supports targeting early dynamic periods of post-stroke neural remodeling with rehabilitative training (RT). However, the specific neural events that optimize RT effects are unclear and, as such, cannot be precisely targeted. Here we review evidence for, potential mechanisms of, and ongoing knowledge gaps surrounding time-sensitivities in RT efficacy, with a focus on findings from animal models of upper extremity RT. The reorganization of neural connectivity after stroke is a complex multiphasic process interacting with glial and vascular changes. Behavioral manipulations can impact numerous elements of this process to affect function. RT efficacy varies both with onset time and its timing relative to the development of compensatory strategies with the less-affected (nonparetic) hand. Earlier RT may not only capitalize on a dynamic period of brain remodeling but also counter a tendency for compensatory strategies to stamp-in suboptimal reorganization patterns. However, there is considerable variability across injuries and individuals in brain remodeling responses, and some early behavioral manipulations worsen function. The optimal timing of RT may remain unpredictable without clarification of the cellular events underlying time-sensitivities in its effects.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 06/2014; 8:379. DOI:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00379 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent human neuroimaging studies indicate that spontaneous fluctuations in neural activity, as measured by functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI), are significantly affected following stroke. Disrupted functional connectivity is associated with behavioral deficits and has been linked to long-term recovery potential. FcMRI studies of stroke in rats have generally produced similar findings, although subacute cortical reorganization following focal ischemia appears to be more rapid than in humans. Similar studies in mice have not been published, most likely because fMRI in the small mouse brain is technically challenging. Extending functional connectivity methods to mouse models of stroke could provide a valuable tool for understanding the link between molecular mechanisms of stroke repair and human fcMRI findings at the systems level. We applied functional connectivity optical intrinsic signal imaging (fcOIS) to mice before and 72hours after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) to examine how graded ischemic injury affects the relationship between functional connectivity and infarct volume, stimulus-induced response, and behavior. Regional changes in functional connectivity within the MCA territory were largely proportional to infarct volume. However, subcortical damage affected functional connectivity in somatosensory cortex as much as larger infarcts of cortex and subcortex. The extent of injury correlated with cortical activations following electrical stimulation of the affected forelimb and with functional connectivity in somatosensory cortex. Regional homotopic functional connectivity in motor cortex correlated with behavioral deficits measured using an adhesive patch removal test. Spontaneous hemodynamic activity within the infarct exhibited altered temporal and spectral features in comparison to intact tissue; failing to account for these regional differences significantly affected apparent post-stroke functional connectivity measures. Thus, several results were strongly dependent on how the resting-state data were processed. Specifically, global signal regression alone resulted in apparently distorted functional connectivity measures in the intact hemisphere. These distortions were corrected by regressing out multiple sources of variance, as performed in human fcMRI. We conclude that fcOIS provides a sensitive imaging modality in the murine stroke model; however, it is necessary to properly account for altered hemodynamics in injured brain to obtain accurate measures of functional connectivity.NeuroImage 05/2014; 99. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.051 · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to observe the expression of LINGO-1 after cerebral ischemia, investigate the effects of retinoic acid (RA) on the expression of LINGO-1 and GAP-43, and the number of synapses, and to emplore the repressive effect of LINGO-1 on neural regeneration after cerebral ischemia. The model of permanent focal cerebral ischemia was established by the modified suture method of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The expression of LINGO-1 was detected by Western blotting and that of GAP-43 by immunohistochemistry. The number of synapses was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The SD rats were divided into three groups: sham operation (sham) group, cerebral ischemia (CI) group and RA treatment (RA) group. The results showed that the expression level of LINGO-1 at 7th day after MCAO in sham, CI and RA groups was 0.266±0.019, 1.215±0.063 and 0.702±0.081, respectively (P<0.01). The number of Gap-43-positive nerve cells at 7th day after MCAO in sham, CI and RA group was 0, 59.08±1.76 and 76.20±3.12 per high power field, respectively (P<0.05). The number of synapses at 7th day after MCAO was 8.42±0.13, 1.74±0.37 and 5.39±0.26 per μm(2), respectively (P<0.05). It is concluded that LINGO-1 expression is up-regulated after cerebral ischemia, and RA inhibits the expression of LINGO-1, promotes the expression of GAP-43 and increases the number of synapses. It suggests that LINGO-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia, which may provide an experimenal basis for LINGO-1 antogonist, RA, for the treatment of cerebral ischemia.Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology 02/2015; 35(1):54-7. DOI:10.1007/s11596-015-1388-3 · 0.78 Impact Factor