The role of leptin in leptin resistance and obesity.
ABSTRACT Although the presence of hyperleptinemia with leptin resistance and obesity has long been recognized, a causal role of elevated leptin in these biological states remains unclear. This article summarizes some recent work from our laboratory supporting the concept that leptin, in and of itself, promotes leptin resistance and such resistance compounds the metabolic impact of diet-induced obesity. Results from multiple studies demonstrate that (1) chronically elevated central leptin decreases hypothalamic leptin receptor expression and protein levels and impairs leptin signaling; (2) leptin resistance and obesity are associated with reduced leptin receptors and diminished maximal leptin signaling capacity; and (3) leptin resistance confers increased susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. In essence, the augmented leptin accompanying obesity contributes to leptin resistance, and this leptin resistance promotes further obesity, leading to a vicious cycle of escalating metabolic devastation.
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ABSTRACT: Protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) regulates food intake (FI) and energy expenditure (EE) by inhibiting leptin signaling in the hypothalamus. In peripheral tissues, PTP1B regulates insulin signaling, but its effects on CNS insulin action are largely unknown. Mice harboring a whole-brain deletion of the gene encoding PTP1B (Ptpn1) are lean, leptin-hypersensitive, and resistant to high fat diet-induced (HFD-induced) obesity. Arcuate proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neuron-specific deletion of Ptpn1 causes a similar, but much milder, phenotype, suggesting that PTP1B also acts in other neurons to regulate metabolism. Steroidogenic factor-1-expressing (SF-1-expressing) neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) play an important role in regulating body weight, FI, and EE. Surprisingly, Ptpn1 deletion in SF-1 neurons caused an age-dependent increase in adiposity in HFD-fed female mice. Although leptin sensitivity was increased and FI was reduced in these mice, they had impaired sympathetic output and decreased EE. Immunohistochemical analysis showed enhanced leptin and insulin signaling in VMH neurons from mice lacking PTP1B in SF-1 neurons. Thus, in the VMH, leptin negatively regulates FI, promoting weight loss, whereas insulin suppresses EE, leading to weight gain. Our results establish a novel role for PTP1B in regulating insulin action in the VMH and suggest that increased insulin responsiveness in SF-1 neurons can overcome leptin hypersensitivity and enhance adiposity.The Journal of clinical investigation. 08/2014;
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ABSTRACT: High-fructose diets have been implicated in obesity via impairment of leptin signaling in humans and rodents. We investigated whether fructose-induced leptin resistance in mice could be used to study the metabolic consequences of fructose consumption in humans, particularly in children and adolescents. Male C57Bl/6 mice were weaned to a randomly assigned diet: high fructose, high sucrose, high fat, or control (sugar-free, low-fat). Mice were maintained on their diets for at least 14 weeks. While fructose-fed mice regularly consumed more kcal and expended more energy, there was no difference in body weight compared to control by the end of the study. Additionally, after 14 weeks, both fructose-fed and control mice displayed similar leptin sensitivity. Fructose-feeding also did not change circulating glucose, triglycerides, or free fatty acids. Though fructose has been linked to obesity in several animal models, our data fail to support a role for fructose intake through food lasting 3 months in altering of body weight and leptin signaling in mice. The lack of impact of fructose in the food of growing mice on either body weight or leptin sensitivity over this time frame was surprising, and important information for researchers interested in fructose and body weight regulation. Copyright: ß 2014 Tillman et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Data Availability: The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All data are included within the paper. Funding: KR is supported by funds from the National Institutes of Health (HL084207) and American Heart Association (14EIA18860041). SJS is supported by funds from the National Institutes of Health (R15AG37959-1). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107206. · 3.53 Impact Factor