Glycogen autophagy in glucose homeostasis.
ABSTRACT Glycogen autophagy, the sequestration and degradation of cell glycogen in the autophagic vacuoles, is a selective, hormonally controlled and highly regulated process, representing a mechanism of glucose homeostasis under conditions of demand for the production of this sugar. In the newborn animals, this process is induced by glucagon secreted during the postnatal hypoglycemia and inhibited by insulin and parenteral glucose, which abolishes glucagon secretion. Hormonal action is mediated by the cAMP/protein kinase A (induction) and phosphoinositides/mTOR (inhibition) pathways that converge on common targets, such as the protein phosphatase 2A to regulate autophgosomal glycogen-hydrolyzing acid glucosidase and glycogen autophagy. Intralysosomal phosphate exchange reactions, which are affected by changes in the calcium levels and acid mannose 6- and acid glucose 6-phosphatase activities, can modify the intralysosomal composition in phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated glucose and promote the exit of free glucose through the lysosomal membrane. Glycogen autophagy-derived nonphosphorylated glucose assists the hyaloplasmic glycogen degradation-derived glucose 6-phosphate to combat postnatal hypoglycemia and participates in other metabolic pathways to secure the fine tuning of glucose homeostasis during the neonatal period.
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ABSTRACT: The localization of acid mannose 6-phosphatase activity in newborn rat hepatocytes was demonstrated at the electron microscopic level by using a histochemical method based on the work of Robinson and Karnovsky. Reaction product was virtually restricted to the lysosomes. Most of them exhibited various grades of reactivity. Some were devoid of activity. Our observations suggested that this histochemical method could be used to differentiate distinct subpopulations of lysosomes on the basis of their acid mannose 6-phosphatase activity.Morphologie 01/2005; 88(283):176-8.
Article: Neonatal hypoglycaemia: aetiologies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of glucose status requires knowledge of the homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the blood glucose concentration between the narrow range of 2.5 and 7.5 mmol/l during periods of eating or fasting. Hypoglycaemia occurring within the first few hours after eating is suggestive of hyperinsulinism. Most glucose is subsequently converted into glycogen in the liver, and hypoglycaemia occurring during this phase is suggestive of glycogenosis. During fasting, gluconeogenesis progressively replaces glycogen as the major source of blood glucose, and hypoglycaemia occurring during this period is suggestive of impaired gluconeogenesis or fatty acid disorders. Growth hormone, glucagon, cortisol and insulin-like growth factor 1 deficiencies may also play a role. Other causes of hypoglycaemia have also been identified recently, namely glucose transporter disorders, respiratory chain disorders and congenital disorders of glycosylation.Seminars in Neonatology 03/2004; 9(1):49-58.
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ABSTRACT: Rapamycin is a natural product with potent antifungal and immunosuppressive activities. Rapamycin binds to the FKBP12 prolyl isomerase, and the resulting protein-drug complex inhibits the TOR kinase homologs. Both the FKBP12 and the TOR proteins are highly conserved from yeast to man, and genetic and biochemical studies reveal that these proteins are the targets of rapamycin in vivo. Treatment of yeast or mammalian cells with rapamycin inhibits translational initiation of a subset of mRNAs and dramatically represses ribosomal mRNA and tRNA transcription. Furthermore, rapamycin exposure blocks cell cycle progression in the early G1 phase of the cell cycle, driving cells into a G0 state and, ultimately, triggering autophagy. Recent findings reveal that the upstream factors regulating the TOR signaling cascade are involved in detecting amino acids, nutrients, or growth factors. These findings indicate that the TOR proteins function in a signal transduction pathway that coordinates nutritional and mitogenic signals to control protein biosynthesis and degradation.Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 10/1999; 155(1-2):135-42. · 4.04 Impact Factor