Behavioural aspects of impulsivity in alcoholics with and without a cluster-B personality disorder. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 41(4), 412-20

Psychiatric Centre Alexian Brothers, Provinciesteenweg 408, Boechout, 2530, Belgium.
Alcohol and Alcoholism (Impact Factor: 2.89). 05/2006; 41(4):412-20. DOI: 10.1093/alcalc/agl030
Source: PubMed


Studies have shown that alcoholics with a cluster-B personality disorder (cluster-B PD) are characterized by high levels of impulsivity. However, impulsivity has mainly been studied as a broad concept without its different aspects being considered. The present study compared abstinent alcoholic inpatients without any personality disorder (PD) and abstinent alcoholics with cluster-B PD on different aspects of impulsivity, i.e. self-reported impulsivity and neuropsychological indicators such as behavioural control and delay of gratification.
Forty alcohol-dependent inpatients without PD and 22 alcohol-dependent inpatients with a cluster-B PD were compared on two self-report impulsivity questionnaires (Barratt impulsiveness scale; sensation-seeking scales) and three behavioural impulsivity tasks [Go/No-Go task; delay discounting task (DDT); Stroop colour word test]. Tests were administered after stable abstinence of at least 3 weeks.
Self-report measures of impulsivity were higher in cluster-B alcoholics than in alcoholics without PD. Behavioural tasks revealed a more differentiated pattern of impairments. On the Go/No-Go task, cluster-B alcoholics were impaired in inhibitory control but not in reaction time compared with alcoholics without PD. In contrast, no significant differences on the DDT and the Stroop were observed.
Alcohol-dependent patients with and without a cluster-B PD differ in terms of behavioural inhibition but not in terms of activation or the ability to delay gratification. This finding may partly account for their impulsive and (self-) destructive behaviours. Treatment planning should pay specific attention to these impairments in behavioural control.

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    • "For example, adolescent smokers who exhibit a greater number of ADHD symptoms discount more than those who do not (Fields et al., 2009). Similarly, individuals with alcohol dependence who also exhibit a Cluster B personality disorder (Dom et al., 2006) discount more than those without that comorbidity. Furthermore, attempting suicide among substance abusers (Liu et al., 2012) and need-sharing among heroindependent adults (Odum et al., 2000) are associated with greater rates of discounting. "
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    Neuropharmacology 06/2013; 76. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.06.013 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Various neuropsychological frameworks have been used to explore the individual behavioral differences of impulsivity. Roughly there are two different approaches to evaluate impulsivity level: subjective self-reported measures of personality that rely on an individual's self-perception of behaviour and objective behavioural tasks that estimate the performance level (Dom et al., 2006). Both laboratory and self-report personality measures of impulsivity appear to be related to risk of psychopathology (Swann et al. 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Impulsivity is a complex behaviour composed of different domains encompassing behavioural dis-inhibition, risky decision-making and delay discounting abnormalities. To investigate regional brain correlates between levels of individual impulsivity and grey matter volume, we performed voxel-based morphometric correlation analysis in 34 young, healthy subjects using impulsivity scores measured with Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 and computerized Kirby's delay discounting task. The VBM analysis showed that impulsivity appears to be reliant on a network of cortical (medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and subcortical (ventral striatum) structures emphasizing the importance of brain networks associated with reward related decision-making in daily life as morphological biomarkers for impulsivity in a normal healthy population. While our results in healthy volunteers may not directly extend to pathological conditions, they provide an insight into the mechanisms of impulsive behaviour in patients with abnormalities in prefrontal/frontal-striatal connections, such as in drug abuse, pathological gambling, ADHD and Parkinson's disease.
    Brain Topography 12/2012; 26(3). DOI:10.1007/s10548-012-0270-x · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    • "The third finding, on the other hand, connects the frontal theta activity with risky/impulsive reward processing, that is, the lower the frontal theta power the more frequent the risky choice (i.e., betting with 50¢ in the face of loss). It should be noted that similar interlinks between variables such as impulsivity, reward-related responses, alcoholism, and electrophysiological (ERP/ERO) measures have been previously reported from our laboratory [e.g., Chen et al., 2007; Kamarajan et al., 2008, 2009, 2010; Porjesz and Rangaswamy , 2007] and elsewhere [e.g., Bjork et al., 2004; Dom et al., 2006a,b, 2007; Finn et al., 1999; Justus et al., 2001; Mitchell et al., 2005; Nagoshi et al., 1991; Petry, 2001]. "
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