Comparative evaluation of microvessel density determined by CD34 or CD105 in benign and malignant gastric lesions
ABSTRACT Microvessel density (MVD) is regarded as a surrogate marker for angiogenesis and has been used for tumor prognosis. In this study, MVD was identified immunohistochemically by monoclonal antibodies against CD105 and CD34 in the tissues representing gastric carcinoma, chronic gastritis, and hyperplastic polyps, and the results were correlated with clinicopathologic features. The expression of CD105 in the microvessels within benign lesions was barely visible, and MVD was markedly lower than that determined by CD34. CD34 was strongly expressed in the microvessels within hyperplastic polyps and tissues with gastritis. In gastric carcinoma, CD105 expression in microvessels was as high as the MVD, compared with benign lesions. CD105 stained well-formed mature and newly formed immature vessels within the cancer mass. Correlation analysis showed that MVD determined by CD105 correlated with blood vessel invasion, distant metastasis, and formation of ascites. Survival analysis demonstrated an inverse correlation between MVD count and overall survival: patients with MVD counts of 32 or higher survived for a much shorter time than those with counts lower than 32. Multivariate analysis confirmed that MVD determined by CD105 was an independent prognostic factor for survival. Microvessel density determined by CD34 inversely correlated with overall survival, but it did not correlate with other clinicopathologic parameters except formation of ascites. In conclusion, CD34 was universally expressed in blood vessels within benign and malignant tissues, whereas CD105 expression was minimal in benign tissues but stronger in gastric carcinoma. These data suggest that both CD105 and CD34 could be used for quantification of angiogenesis, but preference should be given to CD105 in the evaluation of prognosis in gastric carcinoma.
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ABSTRACT: Neovascularization plays a key role in bone repair and regeneration. In the present study, four types of porous calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics, namely hydroxyapatite (HA), biphasic calcium phosphates (BCP-1 and BCP-2) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), with the HA to β-TCP ratio of 100/0, 70/30, 30/70 and 2/98, respectively, were investigated in terms of their angiogenic induction. The in vitro cell culture revealed that the ceramics could promote proliferation and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This result could be achieved by stimulating CCD-18Co human fibroblasts (HFs) to secrete angiogenic factors (VEGF, bFGF and TGF-β) as a paracrine effect, as well as by upregulating HUVECs to express these angiogenic factors and their receptors (KDR, FGFR1 and ACVRL1) and the downstream eNOS as an autocrine effect. These effects were more significant in β-TCP and BCP-2, which had higher content of β-TCP phase. In the in vivo implantation into the thigh muscles of mice, the process of neovasculaization of the ceramics was initiated at 2 weeks and the mature vascular networks were formed at 4 weeks as visualized by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microvessel density (MVD) count confirmed that β-TCP and BCP-2 induced more microvessels formation compared with HA and BCP-1. This phenomenon was further confirmed by the significantly upregulated expressions of angiogenesis-related genes in the cells ingrowth into the inner pores of the two ceramics. All the results confirmed the angiogenic induction of porous CaP ceramics, and higher content of β-TCP phase showed the enhanced effect on neovascularization of the ceramics.Acta Biomaterialia 09/2014; 11. DOI:10.1016/j.actbio.2014.09.028 · 5.68 Impact Factor
Article: Endoglin-targeted cancer therapy.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vascular-targeting antiangiogenic therapy (VTAT) of cancer can be advantageous over conventional tumor cell targeted cancer therapy if an appropriate target is found. Our hypothesis is that endoglin (ENG; CD105) is an excellent target in VTAT. ENG is selectively expressed on vascular and lymphatic endothelium in tumors. This allows us to target both tumor-associated vasculature and lymphatic vessels to suppress tumor growth and metastasis. ENG is essential for angiogenesis/vascular development and a co-receptor of TGF-β. Our studies of selected anti-ENG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in several animal models and in vitro studies support our hypothesis. These mAbs and/or their immunoconjugates (immunotoxins and radioimmunoconjugates) induced regression of preformed tumors as well as inhibited formation of new tumors. In addition, they suppressed metastasis. Several mechanisms were involved in the suppressive activity of the naked (unconjugated) anti-ENG mAbs. These include direct growth suppression of proliferating endothelial cells, induction of apoptosis, ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) and induction of T cell immunity. To facilitate clinical application, we generated a human/mouse chimeric anti-ENG mAb termed c-SN6j and performed studies of pharmacokinetics, toxicology and immunogenicity of c-SN6j in nonhuman primates. No significant toxicity was detected by several criteria and minimal immune response to the murine part of c-SN6j was detected after multiple i.v. injections. The results support our hypothesis that c-SN6j can be safely administered in cancer patients. This hypothesis is supported by the ongoing phase 1 clinical trial of c-SN6j (also known as TRC105) in patients with advanced or metastatic solid cancer in collaboration with Tracon Pharma and several oncologists (NCT00582985).Current Drug Delivery 11/2010; 8(1):135-43. DOI:10.2174/156720111793663570 · 2.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Information on the biology of metastasis development in salivary gland tumors is scarce. Since angiogenesis seems associated with this phenomenon in other tumors, we sought to compare salivary gland tumors with diverse metastatic behavior in order to improve the knowledge and management of these lesions. Samples from the most important salivary gland tumors were segregated according to its metastatic behavior and submitted to routine immunohistochemistry to identify vessels positive for CD105 expression. Frequency of positive cases and intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) was compared among the group of lesions. CD105 positive vessels were absent in normal salivary gland tissue, were rare in pleomorphic adenomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC), more common in polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinomas and highest in mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Only ACC with such feature were metastatic. IMD was higher in malignant rather than benign tumors. Immunostaining of CD105 in salivary gland tumors implies participation of angiogenesis in the development of malignant lesions, as well as some role for myoepithelial cells in the control of new vessel formation. In addition, suggest that ACC with positive CD105 vessels are at higher risk for metastasis.BMC Cancer 11/2009; 9:391. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-9-391 · 3.32 Impact Factor