Effects of weight loss on insulin sensitivity and arterial stiffness in overweight adults.
ABSTRACT Obesity is characterized by metabolic and vascular abnormalities. We examined the effects of weight loss on insulin sensitivity and arterial stiffness in overweight adults. Twelve (9 females; 3 males) overweight (body mass index, 30.3 +/- 3.7) adults (54.9 +/- 3.9 years) without diabetes or vascular disease were counseled by a registered dietician to lose weight over 6 months. Vascular structure, function, and wall mechanical properties were measured via ultrasound. Intravenous glucose tolerance test, 24-hour blood pressure, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and lipids were also assessed. There were significant reductions in body mass (86.3 +/- 14.2 vs 79.5 +/- 13.8 kg, P < .0001) and percentage of fat (44.3% +/- 7.0% vs 41.0% +/- 8.5%, P < .01) after weight loss. There were significant improvements in total cholesterol (6.0 +/- 0.9 vs 5.0 +/- 0.8 mmol/L, P < .0001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.9 +/- 0.7 vs 3.2 +/- 0.6 mmol/L, P < .0001), triglycerides (3.4 +/- 2.3 vs 2.4 +/- 0.9 mmol/L, P < .05), and insulin sensitivity (3.3 +/- 1.7 vs 5.4 +/- 1.6 microU x 10(-4) min(-1) mL(-1), P < .0001) after weight loss. Brachial artery compliance (P < .05) and distensibility (P < .05) curves over the physiologic pressure range improved, whereas endothelial function and intima-media thickness remained unchanged. In overweight adults, 6 months of weight loss resulted in improvements in body composition, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and brachial artery compliance and distensibility.
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ABSTRACT: It has been recognized that reduction of abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are associated with improvement in insulin-resistance (IR) after weight loss. However, few studies have investigated the correlation of reduction in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with improvement of IR index after weight loss in obese non-diabetic men with metabolic syndrome (MetS).Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 01/2014; 6(1):115. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Obesity is a global epidemic disease; lifestyle modification is an approach in the prevention and management of obesity. Objective: We determined the effects of education on modified lifestyle intervention on arterial stiffness, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods: Twenty-five generally healthy overweight and obese subjects completed nine months education on modified lifestyle intervention at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu. Subjects were regularly counselled to increase physical activity and modify their diet during intervention. Arterial stiffness was measured noninvasively using carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse wave analysis (PWA). Anthropometric measurements, body fat percentage and visceral fat, central and brachial blood pressures, lipid profile, the inflammatory marker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and insulin sensitivity were also recorded. Results: After nine months, a significant weight loss of 2.2 kg was observed associated with significant reductions in waist and hip circumference, aortic systolic blood pressure, serum fasting insulin, insulin resistance, and hsCRP levels. Insulin sensitivity was increased, while body fat and visceral fat percentages were marginally reduced (p = 0.058 and p = 0.059). No significant differences were seen in arterial stiffness, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profile. Conclusion: Education on modified lifestyle intervention improved insulin sensitivity and resistance, reduced hsCRP and aortic systolic blood pressure despite the small weight reduction achieved. Obesity is a risk factor for type II diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, stroke, osteoarthritis, gallbladder disease, sleep apnea, and certain forms of cancer. Obesity is associated with increased arterial stiffness [1, 2] and inflammation [3, 4] as well as altered metabolic profile , all of which predisposes to cardiovascular and metabolic complications. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported that at least 2.8 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese. Lifestyle modification is one approach in prevention and management of obesity. Most previous reported studies on lifestyle modification were conducted with regimented dietary and exercise interventions for periods of less than six months [6-9]. In this study, we examined the effects of nine months education on lifestyle modification to reduce weight on waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), body fat and visceral fat percentages, arterial stiffness, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Subjects were regularly counselled on good dietary habits and increasing physical activity for 9 months. Measurements of arterial stiffness, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin levels, insulin sensitivity and resistance, lipid Correspondence to: Prof.Asian Biomedicine. 01/2014; 8(2):185-194.
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ABSTRACT: This review deals with the effect of several components of the broad term “lifestyle” on arterial stiffness and wave reflections. Caffeine and coffee have an unfavourable effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections both on an acute and on a chronic basis. Acute consumption of tea, which contains not only a great amount of flavonoids but also caffeine, stiffens the arteries less than its caffeine content. Dark chocolate, also rich in flavonoids, has a beneficial acute effect on wave reflections, while its habitual consumption appears to have a beneficial effect both on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Alcohol consumption has a J- or U-shaped effect on arterial stiffness and wave reflections; moderate consumption is beneficial, while high consumption may be deleterious. Salt restriction results in a rapid amelioration of arterial elastic properties. Smoking has been extensively associated with a deterioration of arterial stiffness and wave reflections both on an acute and on a chronic basis. Obesity (especially central) is generally associated with impaired arterial elastic properties, and weight loss is accompanied with improvement in arterial stiffness. Aerobic exercise is beneficial to arterial function, while resistance exercise has the opposite results. Data suggest that acute mental stress has a prolonged unfavorable effect on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. Lifestyle has a significant, and increasingly recognised, impact on cardiovascular risk. An important part of this impact may be mediated through its effect on arterial stiffness and wave reflections given their important pathophysiological and prognostic role.Artery Research 01/2006; 1.