Differential roles of C/EBP beta regulatory domains in specifying MCP-1 and IL-6 transcription.
ABSTRACT C/EBPbeta is a member of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein family of transcription factors and has been shown to be a critical transcriptional regulator of various proinflammatory genes, including IL-6 and MCP-1. To examine the roles of the C/EBPbeta transactivation and regulatory domains in LPS-induced MCP-1 and IL-6 expression, we expressed various N-terminal truncations and deletions of C/EBPbeta in P388 murine B lymphoblasts, which lack endogenous C/EBPbeta expression and are normally unresponsive to LPS for expression of IL-6 and MCP-1. Unexpectedly, a region between amino acids 105 and 212 of C/EBPbeta that includes regulatory domains 1 and 2 facilitates C/EBPbeta activation of IL-6 expression, while having an inhibitory effect on MCP-1 expression. Thus, this region can mediate promoter-specific effects on cytokine and chemokine gene transcription. LIP, the naturally occurring truncated form of C/EBPbeta, largely retains these regulatory domains and stimulates IL-6 but not MCP-1 transcription.
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ABSTRACT: Signaling through Ras GTPases controls the activity of many transcription factors including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBPbeta), which regulates oncogenic H-Ras(V12)-induced senescence and growth arrest. Here we report that C/EBPbeta (LAP) DNA binding is inhibited by N-terminal sequences and derepressed by oncogenic Ras signaling. Sequence and mutational analyses showed that auto-repression involves two LXXLF (phiXXphiphi)-like motifs (LX1 and LX2) and a third element, auto-inhibitory domain (AID), located within conserved region CR5. LX1 is a critical component of the transactivation domain and has been shown to mediate C/EBPbeta binding to the TAZ2 region of p300/CREB-binding protein coactivators. C/EBPbeta auto-repression also involves a C-terminal regulatory domain (CRD) adjacent to the leucine zipper. CRD contains a third phiXXphiphi motif (LX3) and a short sequence, KQL, which has similarity to a region in the protein-binding site of TAZ2. The C/EBPbeta N- and C-terminal domains physically associate in a manner that requires the basic region and CRD. We propose a model in which the regulatory sequences form a hydrophobic core that reciprocally inhibits DNA binding and transactivation. We also suggest a mechanism for C/EBPbeta derepression involving several recently identified modifications within AID and CRD. Finally, we show that association of activated C/EBPbeta with p300/CREB-binding protein requires the LX2 and AID auto-inhibitory elements. Thus, the N-terminal regulatory elements have dual roles in auto-inhibition and coactivator binding.Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2010; 285(28):21399-410. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Environmental pollutants, such as bisphenol A (BPA), have the potential to affect the differentiation processes and the biology of the adipose tissue. The 3T3-L1 model is one of the murine cell models used extensively for the investigation of the molecular events that govern the differentiation of adipocytes from a committed preadipocyte to a mature, lipid laden adipocyte. Most of the studies investigating the effects of BPA on preadipocyte differentiation have investigated the effects of this chemical in the presence of an optimal differentiation cocktail containing high concentrations of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone, conditions that result in 90% to 100% of differentiated adipocytes. Our studies employed the 3T3-L1 cell model in the absence of exogenous glucocorticoids. We show that BPA is able to increase the differentiation of the 3T3-L1 cells under these conditions. Furthermore, the effect of BPA was observed in the absence of the synthetic glucocorticoid (dexamethasone), a hormone known to be required for the differentiation of the 3T3-L1 cells. In addition, BPA upregulated the mRNA expression and protein levels of the terminal marker of adipogenesis the fatty acid binding protein (aP2) in these cells. Interestingly, the known modulators of adipogenesis such as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ or CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) α were not elevated at the mRNA or protein level in response to BPA. Furthermore, BPA upregulated the expression levels of the marker of adipogenesis aP2, through an effect on the transcriptional activity of C/EBPδ and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) at its promoter.Adipocyte. 07/2014; 3(3):170-9.
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ABSTRACT: There is an emerging consensus that gene regulation evolves through changes in cis-regulatory elements and transcription factors. Although it is clear how nucleotide substitutions in cis-regulatory elements affect gene expression, it is not clear how amino-acid substitutions in transcription factors influence gene regulation. Here we show that amino-acid changes in the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-β (CEBPB, also known as C/EBP-β) in the stem-lineage of placental mammals changed the way it responds to cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signalling. By functionally analysing resurrected ancestral proteins, we identify three amino-acid substitutions in an internal regulatory domain of CEBPB that are responsible for the novel function. These amino-acid substitutions reorganize the location of key phosphorylation sites, introducing a new site and removing two ancestral sites, reversing the response of CEBPB to GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation from repression to activation. We conclude that changing the response of transcription factors to signalling pathways can be an important mechanism of gene regulatory evolution.Nature 11/2011; 480(7377):383-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor