The global atmospheric environment for the next generation.
ABSTRACT Air quality, ecosystem exposure to nitrogen deposition, and climate change are intimately coupled problems: we assess changes in the global atmospheric environment between 2000 and 2030 using 26 state-of-the-art global atmospheric chemistry models and three different emissions scenarios. The first (CLE) scenario reflects implementation of current air quality legislation around the world, while the second (MFR) represents a more optimistic case in which all currently feasible technologies are applied to achieve maximum emission reductions. We contrast these scenarios with the more pessimistic IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Ensemble simulations for the year 2000 are consistent among models and show a reasonable agreement with surface ozone, wet deposition, and NO2 satellite observations. Large parts of the world are currently exposed to high ozone concentrations and high deposition of nitrogen to ecosystems. By 2030, global surface ozone is calculated to increase globally by 1.5 +/- 1.2 ppb (CLE) and 4.3 +/- 2.2 ppb (A2), using the ensemble mean model results and associated +/-1 sigma standard deviations. Only the progressive MFR scenario will reduce ozone, by -2.3 +/- 1.1 ppb. Climate change is expected to modify surface ozone by -0.8 +/- 0.6 ppb, with larger decreases over sea than over land. Radiative forcing by ozone increases by 63 +/- 15 and 155 +/- 37 mW m(-2) for CLE and A2, respectively, and decreases by -45 +/- 15 mW m(-2) for MFR. We compute that at present 10.1% of the global natural terrestrial ecosystems are exposed to nitrogen deposition above a critical load of 1 g N m(-2) yr(-1). These percentages increase by 2030 to 15.8% (CLE), 10.5% (MFR), and 25% (A2). This study shows the importance of enforcing current worldwide air quality legislation and the major benefits of going further. Nonattainment of these air quality policy objectives, such as expressed by the SRES-A2 scenario, would further degrade the global atmospheric environment.
SourceAvailable from: Ki-Hyun Kim[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The impact of climate change has been significant enough to endanger human health both directly and indirectly via heat stress, degraded air quality, rising sea levels, food and water security, extreme weather events (e.g., floods, droughts, earthquakes, volcano eruptions, tsunamis, hurricanes, etc.), vulnerable shelter, and population migration. The deterioration of environmental conditions may facilitate the transmission of diarrhea, vector-borne and infectious diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses, malnutrition, etc. Indirect effects of climate change such as mental health problems due to stress, loss of homes, economic instability, and forced migration are also unignorably important. Children, the elderly, and communities living in poverty are among the most vulnerable of the harmful effects due to climate change. In this article, we have reviewed the scientific evidence for the human health impact of climate change and analyzed the various diseases in association with changes in the atmospheric environment and climate conditions.Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part C Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews 09/2014; 32(3):299-318. DOI:10.1080/10590501.2014.941279 · 2.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Trace metals and broad-spectrum antibiotic drugs are common environmental contaminants, the importance of which is increasing due to global climate change-related effects. In the present study, the biological model organism E. crassus was first acclimated to five temperatures, from 25 °C to 33 °C, followed by exposure to nominal concentrations of copper, the antibiotic model compound oxytetracycline and mixtures of both, at increasing thermal conditions. Variations of temperature-related toxicity were assessed by two high-level endpoint tests, survival and replication rates, and two sublethal parameters: endocytosis rate and lysosomal membrane stability. The selected toxicants presented opposite behaviours as the protozoa's survival rates increased following an increasing thermal gradient in the oxytetracycline-related treatments, and a decline of tolerance in metal-related treatments was observed. Results of tests combining binary mixtures of tested toxicants showed a complex pattern of responses.Environmental Pollution 11/2014; 194:262–271. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.07.035 · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Spatio-temporally consistent O3 doses are demonstrated in adult Fagus sylvatica from the Kranzberg Forest free-air fumigation experiment, covering cross-canopy and whole-seasonal scopes through sap flow measurement. Given O3-driven closure of stomata, we hypothesized enhanced whole-tree level O3 influx to be prevented under enhanced O3 exposure. Although foliage transpiration rate was lowered under twice-ambient O3 around noon by 30% along with canopy conductance, the hypothesis was falsified, as O3 influx was raised by 25%. Nevertheless, the twice-ambient/ambient ratio of O3 uptake was smaller by about 20% than that of O3 exposure, suggesting stomatal limitation of uptake. The O3 response was traceable from leaves across branches to the canopy, where peak transpiration rates resembled those of shade rather than sun branches. Rainy/overcast-day and nightly O3 uptake is quantified and discussed. Whole-seasonal canopy-level validation of modelled with sap flow-derived O3 flux becomes available in assessing O3 risk for forest trees.Environmental Pollution 07/2014; 196. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.06.029 · 3.90 Impact Factor