Article

Parent involvement in novice teen driving: A review of the literature

National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, USA.
Injury Prevention (Impact Factor: 1.94). 07/2006; 12 Suppl 1:i30-7. DOI: 10.1136/ip.2006.011569
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Motor vehicle crashes remain elevated among novice teen drivers for at least several years after licensure. Licensing policies and driver education are the two primary countermeasures employed to decrease young driver crash risks. Graduated driver licensing policies have proved to be effective in reducing crash rates where evaluated. Driver education is an essential part of teaching teens the rules of the road and operating a vehicle, but requires few hours of professional driver training, relying mainly on parents to provide most of the supervised practice driving teens obtain before independent driving licensure. The few studies that have been conducted to increase parent supervised practice driving have not shown positive results. Moreover, it is unclear that increases in practice would improve independent driving safety. Recent research has shown that parent management of the early independent driving experience of novice teens improves safety outcomes, and other research has shown that it is possible to increase parent management practices. This paper provides a review of the literature on parent involvement in supervised practice and independent driving, and efforts to increase parental management.

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Available from: Bruce Simons-Morton, Sep 15, 2014
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    • "Despite the learning opportunity that practice driving provides, teens demonstrate a wide range of driving skill deficits during the first several months of independent driving. For example, newly licensed teens often demonstrate problems with: recognizing hazards in the driving environment (Borowsky et al., 2009; Pradhan et al., 2005); managing speed properly (Braitman et al., 2008; Fisher et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 1998); maintaining attention (Chan et al., 2010; Greenberg et al., 2003); navigating intersections , particularly making left turns with on-coming traffic (Clarke et al., 2005; Kirk and Stamatiadis, 2001; Lee, 2007; Lee et al., 2011; Lerner et al., 1999; McDonald et al., 2012; Simons-Morton and Ouimet, 2006); and maintaining lane positioning (McKnight and McKnight, 2003; Ulmer et al., 1997; Yang et al., 2006). The limited research available suggests that teens may sufficiently develop basic vehicle operations skills such as making turns, backing the vehicle and making stops to pass a state licensing exam, but do not develop higher order tactical skills (i.e., managing traffic situations , including interacting safely with other road users) until amassing a sufficient experience driving in a wide range of challenging situations (Groeger, 2000, 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite demonstrating basic vehicle operations skills sufficient to pass a state licensing test, novice teen drivers demonstrate several deficits in tactical driving skills during the first several months of independent driving. Improving our knowledge of the types of errors made by teen permit holders early in the learning process would assist in the development of novel approaches to driver training and resources for parent supervision.
    Accident Analysis & Prevention 08/2014; 72C:433-439. DOI:10.1016/j.aap.2014.07.033 · 1.87 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, hours or distance alone may not be a good indicator of gained competency because higher hours can be indicative of either a teen who is struggling or a competent teen enjoying practice. This approach, the unitary focus on quantity, has not provided strong support for the potential of supervised practice driving as a means by which to increase driver safety [3] [5] [22] [23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The large contribution of inexperience to the high crash rate of newly licensed teens suggests that they enter licensure with insufficient skills. In a prior analysis, we found moderate support for a direct effect of a web-based intervention, the TeenDrivingPlan (TDP), on teens' driving performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mechanisms by which TDP may be effective and to extend our understanding of how teens learn to drive. Methods: A randomized controlled trial conducted with teen permit holders and parent supervisors (N = 151 dyads) was used to determine if the effect of TDP on driver performance operated through five hypothesized mediators: (1) parent-perceived social support; (2) teen-perceived social support; (3) parent engagement; (4) practice quantity; and (5) practice diversity. Certified driving evaluators, blinded to teens' treatment allocation, assessed teens' driving performance 24 weeks after enrollment. Mediator variables were assessed on self-report surveys administered periodically over the study period. Results: Exposure to TDP increased teen-perceived social support, parent engagement, and practice diversity. Both greater practice quantity and diversity were associated with better driving performance, but only practice diversity mediated the relationship between TDP and driver performance. Conclusions: Practice diversity is feasible to change and increases teens' likelihood of completing a rigorous on-road driving assessment just before licensure. Future research should continue to identify mechanisms that diversify practice driving, explore complementary ways to help families optimize the time they spend on practice driving, and evaluate the long-term effectiveness of TDP.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 06/2014; 55(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.04.010 · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    • "Moreover, hours or distance alone may not be a good indicator of gained competency because higher hours can be indicative of either a teen who is struggling or a competent teen enjoying practice. This approach, the unitary focus on quantity, has not provided strong support for the potential of supervised practice driving as a means by which to increase driver safety [3] [5] [22] [23]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose The large contribution of inexperience to the high crash rate of newly licensed teens suggests that they enter licensure with insufficient skills. In a prior analysis, we found moderate support for a direct effect of a web-based intervention, the TeenDrivingPlan (TDP), on teens' driving performance. The purpose of the present study was to identify the mechanisms by which TDP may be effective and to extend our understanding of how teens learn to drive. Methods A randomized controlled trial conducted with teen permit holders and parent supervisors (N = 151 dyads) was used to determine if the effect of TDP on driver performance operated through five hypothesized mediators: (1) parent-perceived social support; (2) teen-perceived social support; (3) parent engagement; (4) practice quantity; and (5) practice diversity. Certified driving evaluators, blinded to teens' treatment allocation, assessed teens' driving performance 24 weeks after enrollment. Mediator variables were assessed on self-report surveys administered periodically over the study period. Results Exposure to TDP increased teen-perceived social support, parent engagement, and practice diversity. Both greater practice quantity and diversity were associated with better driving performance, but only practice diversity mediated the relationship between TDP and driver performance. Conclusions Practice diversity is feasible to change and increases teens' likelihood of completing a rigorous on-road driving assessment just before licensure. Future research should continue to identify mechanisms that diversify practice driving, explore complementary ways to help families optimize the time they spend on practice driving, and evaluate the long-term effectiveness of TDP.
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