Matrix metalloproteinase-9 degrades amyloid-beta fibrils in vitro and compact plaques in situ.
ABSTRACT The pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease is the senile plaque principally composed of tightly aggregated amyloid-beta fibrils (fAbeta), which are thought to be resistant to degradation and clearance. In this study, we explored whether proteases capable of degrading soluble Abeta (sAbeta) could degrade fAbeta as well. We demonstrate that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) can degrade fAbeta and that this ability is not shared by other sAbeta-degrading enzymes examined, including endothelin-converting enzyme, insulin-degrading enzyme, and neprilysin. fAbeta was decreased in samples incubated with MMP-9 compared with other proteases, assessed using thioflavin-T. Furthermore, fAbeta breakdown with MMP-9 but not with other proteases was demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Proteolytic digests of purified fAbeta were analyzed with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry to identify sites of Abeta that are cleaved during its degradation. Only MMP-9 digests contained fragments (Abeta(1-20) and Abeta(1-30)) from fAbeta(1-42) substrate; the corresponding cleavage sites are thought to be important for beta-pleated sheet formation. To determine whether MMP-9 can degrade plaques formed in vivo, fresh brain slices from aged APP/PS1 mice were incubated with proteases. MMP-9 digestion resulted in a decrease in thioflavin-S (ThS) staining. Consistent with a role for endogenous MMP-9 in this process in vivo, MMP-9 immunoreactivity was detected in astrocytes surrounding amyloid plaques in the brains of aged APP/PS1 and APPsw mice, and increased MMP activity was selectively observed in compact ThS-positive plaques. These findings suggest that MMP-9 can degrade fAbeta and may contribute to ongoing clearance of plaques from amyloid-laden brains.
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ABSTRACT: Background The data overload has created a new set of challenges in finding meaningful and relevant information with minimal cognitive effort. However designing robust and scalable knowledge discovery systems remains a challenge. Recent innovations in the (biological) literature mining tools have opened new avenues to understand the confluence of various diseases, genes, risk factors as well as biological processes in bridging the gaps between the massive amounts of scientific data and harvesting useful knowledge.Methods In this paper, we highlight some of the findings using a text analytics tool, called ARIANA - Adaptive Robust and Integrative Analysis for finding Novel Associations.ResultsEmpirical study using ARIANA reveals knowledge discovery instances that illustrate the efficacy of such tool. For example, ARIANA can capture the connection between the drug hexamethonium and pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis that caused the tragic death of a healthy volunteer in a 2001 John Hopkins asthma study, even though the abstract of the study was not part of the semantic model.Conclusion An integrated system, such as ARIANA, could assist the human expert in exploratory literature search by bringing forward hidden associations, promoting data reuse and knowledge discovery as well as stimulating interdisciplinary projects by connecting information across the disciplines.Journal of Translational Medicine 11/2014; 12(1):324. · 3.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 42 amino acid species of amyloid beta (Aβ42) and tau levels are strongly correlated with the presence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology including amyloid plaques and neurodegeneration and have been successfully used as endophenotypes for genetic studies of AD. Additional CSF analytes may also serve as useful endophenotypes that capture other aspects of AD pathophysiology. Here we have conducted a genome-wide association study of CSF levels of 59 AD-related analytes. All analytes were measured using the Rules Based Medicine Human DiscoveryMAP Panel, which includes analytes relevant to several disease-related processes. Data from two independently collected and measured datasets, the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center (ADRC) and Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), were analyzed separately, and combined results were obtained using meta-analysis. We identified genetic associations with CSF levels of 5 proteins (Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), Interleukin 6 receptor (IL6R) and Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3)) with study-wide significant p-values (p<1.46×10-10) and significant, consistent evidence for association in both the Knight ADRC and the ADNI samples. These proteins are involved in amyloid processing and pro-inflammatory signaling. SNPs associated with ACE, IL6R and MMP3 protein levels are located within the coding regions of the corresponding structural gene. The SNPs associated with CSF levels of CCL4 and CCL2 are located in known chemokine binding proteins. The genetic associations reported here are novel and suggest mechanisms for genetic control of CSF and plasma levels of these disease-related proteins. Significant SNPs in ACE and MMP3 also showed association with AD risk. Our findings suggest that these proteins/pathways may be valuable therapeutic targets for AD. Robust associations in cognitively normal individuals suggest that these SNPs also influence regulation of these proteins more generally and may therefore be relevant to other diseases.PLoS Genetics 10/2014; 10(10):e1004758. · 8.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive dysfunction of memory and higher cognitive functions with abnormal accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles throughout cortical and limbic brain regions. Withania somnifera (WS) also known as ‘ashwagandha’ (ASH) is used widely in Ayurvedic medicine as a nerve tonic and memory enhancer. However, there is paucity of data on potential neuroprotective effects of ASH against β-Amyloid (1–42) (Aβ) induced neuropathogenesis. In the present study, we have tested the neuroprotective effects of Methanol: Chloroform (3:1) extract of ASH and its constituent Withanolide A (WA) against Aβ induced toxicity, HIV-1Ba-L (clade B) infection and the effects of drugs of abuse using a human neuronal SK-N-MC cell line. Aβ when tested individually, induced cytotoxic effects in SK-N-MC cells as shown by increased trypan blue stained cells. However, when ASH was added to Aβ treated cells the toxic effects were neutralized. This observation was supported by cellular localization of Aβ, MTT formazan exocytosis, and the levels of acetylcholinesterase activity, confirming the chemopreventive or protective effects of ASH against Aβ induced toxicity. Further, the levels of MAP2 were significantly increased in cells infected with HIV-1Ba-L (clade B) as well as in cells treated with Cocaine (COC) and Methamphetamine (METH) compared with control cells. In ASH treated cells the MAP2 levels were significantly less compared to controls. Similar results were observed in combination experiments. Also, WA, a purified constituent of ASH, showed same pattern using MTT assay as a parameter. These results suggests that neuroprotective properties of ASH observed in the present study may provide some explanation for the ethnopharmacological uses of ASH in traditional medicine for cognitive and other HIV associated neurodegenerative disorders and further ASH could be a potential novel drug to reduce the brain amyloid burden and/or improve the HIV-1 associated neurocognitive impairments.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112818. · 3.53 Impact Factor