Side effects of atypical antipsychotics: extrapyramidal symptoms and the metabolic syndrome.

Harvard South Shore Psychiatry Program, Brockton, MA, USA.
Harvard Review of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.49). 01/2006; 14(3):152-64. DOI: 10.1080/10673220600748486
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this article we examine the two major classes of side effects with atypical antipsychotics: extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and the metabolic syndrome (the triad of diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, with associated obesity). We conclude that atypical antipsychotics continue to have notable risks of EPS, particularly akathisia, and that these agents also appear to increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome, though this effect seems most marked with clozapine and olanzapine. Novel conclusions based on this review are as follows: we provide a classification scheme based on low versus high D2 binding affinity (which is, to our knowledge, a new means of classifying atypical antipsychotics); we emphasize that the akathisia risk is likely equal among agents and that tardive dyskinesia is an early, and not late, risk in treatment (a common misconception); we make the methodological point that in randomized clinical trials, there is a high risk of false-negatives regarding side effects; we raise the issue of confounding bias in epidemiological studies of metabolic syndrome; and we stress the need to compare side effects in the same studies and not different studies. Future prospective observational cohort studies must target side effects and be designed to collect and analyze data on confounding factors.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although the treatment of schizophrenia, arguably one of the most devastating diseases today, has been immensely helped by the advent of second-generation antipsychotics, they have come at a considerable cost - the metabolic syndrome (MetS). This adverse effect has been described with several antipsychotics to range between 20%-60%, at least double the prevalence in the general population. All consecutive patients with first episode schizophrenia at our referral psychiatric hospital were recruited in an extensive prospective randomized, double-blind controlled study including measures of waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (SBP/DBP), triglyceride (TGL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and randomized to receive either, haloperidol, olanzapine or risperidone. The prevalence of MetS was assessed based on two criteria- ATP IIIA and criteria of International Diabetes Federation (IDF). This was compared with a gender, age, exercise and diet matched healthy control group. The analysis of 99 patients showed a prevalence of MetS as 10.1% and 18.2% as assessed by ATP IIIA and IDF criteria respectively. The prevalence of MetS in our sample of patients with schizophrenia is at least five times as high when compared to the matched healthy control group. Olanzapine had maximum prevalence of MetS at 20-25% followed by risperidone at 9-24% and haloperidol at 0-3%. Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent among treated patients with first episode schizophrenia. Early monitoring of patients on atypical antipsychotics can possibly play an important role in early detection and hence prevention of the metabolic syndrome.
    Schizophrenia Research 05/2008; 101(1-3):266-72. DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2008.01.004 · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antipsychotics are effective drugs that are prescribed frequently for a large group of patients. However, they also have many side-effects which can lead ultimately to serious somatic complications. These complications fall into various categories: metabolic, cardiovascular, neurobiological, haematological, gastro-intestinal and urogenital. To make an inventory of the side-effects and advise on ways of monitoring and preventing them. method The multidisciplinary working group on somatic complications arising from the use of antipsychotics (Werkgroep Somatische Complicaties) has collected literature on the subject and has discussed it at a number of consensus meetings. results The most frequent somatic complications are described on the basis of specific risk profiles and advice is given on how to identify these complications and on how to treat them when necessary. It is essential to monitor, systematically and regularly, somatic complications arising from the use of antipsychotics; furthermore, polypharmacy should be avoided. The person ultimately responsible for this is the doctor who has prescribed the antipsychotics. In addition, it is important to draw patients' attention to the general rules for a healthy lifestyle: no smoking, a balanced diet and adequate exercise. It is very important that somatic complications should be monitored carefully and accurately. So far, the Netherlands has no official guidelines on ways to identify and treat somatic complications.
    Tijdschrift voor psychiatrie 02/2008; 50(9):579-91.
  • Source
    Medicinski pregled 12/2013; DOI:10.2298/MPNS13S1047V